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Full text of "The Jesuit ministry of publishing : overview of guidelines and praxis"

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http://archive.org/details/jesuitministryof403kasl 





THE SPIRITUALITY OF JESUITS 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing 

Overview of Guidlines and Praxis 



Robert J. Kaslyn, SJ. 



BX3701 .S88 
v.40:no.3(2008:fall) 
10/30/2008 
Current Periodicals 




AUTUMN 2008 



THE SEMINAR ON JESUIT SPIRITUALITY 

The Seminar is composed of a number of Jesuits appointed from their provinces in the United 
States. 

It concerns itself with topics pertaining to the spiritual doctrine and practice of Jesuits, 
especially United States Jesuits, and communicates the results to the members of the provinces 
through its publication, Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits. This is done in the spirit of 
Vatican II's recommendation that religious institutes recapture the original inspiration of their 
founders and adapt it to the circumstances of modern times. The Seminar welcomes reactions or 
comments in regard to the material that it publishes. 

The Seminar focuses its direct attention on the life and work of the Jesuits of the Unit- 
ed States. The issues treated may be common also to Jesuits of other regions, to other priests, re- 
ligious, and laity, to both men and women. Hence, the journal, while meant especially for Ameri- 
can Jesuits, is not exclusively for them. Others who may find it helpful are cordially welcome to 
make use of it. 

CURRENT MEMBERS OF THE SEMINAR 

R. Bentley Anderson, S.J., teaches history at St. Louis University, St. Louis, MO (2008) 

Richard A. Blake, S. J., is chairman of the Seminar and editor of Studies; he teaches film studies 

at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. (2002) 
James T. Bretzke, S.J., teaches theology at Boston College School of Theology and Ministry, 

Boston, Mass. (2006) 
Gerald T. Cobb, S.J., teaches Enghsh at Seattle University, Seattle, Wash. (2007) 
Patrick J. Howell, S.J., is rector of the Jesuit Community and Vice-President for Mission and 

Ministry at at Seattle University, Seattle, Wash. (2006) 
Mark S. Massa, S. J., teaches theology and is director of the American Catholic Studies Program 

at Fordham University, Bronx, N. Y. (2006) 
Thomas Massaro, S.J., teaches theology at Boston College School of Theology and Ministry, Bos- 
ton, Mass. (2006) 
Michael C. McCarthy, S.J, teaches theology and classics at Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, 

Cal. (2008) 
Thomas J. Scirghi, S.J., teaches liturgy at the Jesuit School of Theology at Berkeley, Berkeley, 

Cal. (2007) 
Thomas Worcester, S.J., teaches history at the College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Mass. 

(2007) 
Michael A. Zampelli, S. J., teaches theater and dance at Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, Cal. 

(2007) 

The opinions expressed in Studies are those of the individual authors thereof. Parentheses des- 
ignate year of entry as a Seminar member. 

Copyright © 2008 and published by the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality 



Business Office 

Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 

3601 Lindell Blvd., 

St. Louis, MO 63108 

TeL 314-633-4622 ;Fax 314-633-4623 

E-mail ijs@jesuitsources.com 



Editorial Office 

Faber House 

102 College Road 

Chestnut Hill, MA 02467-3841 

TeL 617-552-0860; Fax 617-552-0925 

E-mail fleminpb@bc.edu 



The Jesuit Ministry 
OF Publishing 

Overview of Guidelines and Praxis 



Robert J. Kaslyn, S.J. 



STUDIES IN THE SPIRITUALITY OF JESUITS 

40/3 • AUTUMN 2008 



the first word . . . 



1 he start of another ho-hum week in the office. Let's boot up the computer 
and see what's going on in my little world. Someone currently based in Nigeria 
tells me that I've won an international lottery again. Great. I've always wanted 
to be rich. Wiring a few hundred pounds to a solicitor's office in London will 
start the process of transferring the funds to my account. How many lotteries 
have I won this year? An incredible run of good luck. Delete. London solicitors 
with Nigerian connections must be busy people these days. Last week a mis- 
sionary told me that she had received a huge grant from an international foun- 
dation, but the funds were frozen in England. A few hundred pounds wired 
overseas would enable the lawyers to begin the currency exchange that would 
save hundreds of lives and spread the Gospel throughout the continent. The ul- 
tra pious language raised suspicions. Delete. 

Not all these correspondents want money directly. Some actually want 
to take care of my money. Several times a week various banks and brokerage 
houses inform me that the security of my account has been compromised, and 
my investments are now at risk. I could lose millions, unless they receive con- 
firmation of my account numbers, PIN and the institutions that oversee my 
holdings. Do budget conscious superiors know about this portfolio? Does the 
I.R.S.? Delete. Someone must have blown my cover on my vast collection of 
credit cards. All of them seem to have been issued by companies with extreme- 
ly porous security, however. Not to worry. Sending in my credit-card numbers, 
date of birth, social-security number and mother's maiden name will enable 
this solicitous account manager to remedy the problem before an unscrupu- 
lous person in Hungary assumes my identity and buys a Porsche in my narae. 
Imagine some deluded soul wanting my credit rating. Delete. 

Someone out there must know my actual financial status. Over the past 
few months, several potential benefactors have promised to increase my earn- 
ing power a hundred percent by sending me a graduate degree. Why stop with 
a Masters? Go for the Ph.D. No books, no exams, no classes. Send money Spec- 
ify the area. Spelling ichthyology or veterinarian might prove an obstacle, but 
they don't seem to be sticklers on details. If only someone had told me about 
this forty years ago, it would have saved a lot of time and bother. What's done 
is done. No regrets, but should I forward this material to some formation direc- 
tors? Think of the money this plan could save for the province area seminarii. 
Why bother? Superiors never listen to me anyway. Delete. 

Health care has become a terribly expensive proposition in our graying 
provinces, but help is available. Forget Medicare and the Jesuit Health Trust. 

in 



Again this morning I received another notice that there are people out there who 
ship medications, all sorts of them, at a fraction of the price charged by pharma- 
cies. No prescriptions required. That cuts down on bills from doctors and hos- 
pitals. Wait. Even more. If the medications don't cure the symptoms, whatever 
they are, the patient can apply heat and reduce the compounds to their constit- 
uent elements: anti-freeze and paint remover. Delete. Drat! That was too hasty. 
The anti-freeze might come in handy for the Porsche. 

More good news for perfectly healthy consumers as well. For a mere 
$19.95 plus postage, a company will send me a genuine, collectible, gold Rolex 
wristwatch. (It could be one of the line made in Taiwan or Sri Lanka, of course, 
but if it is a genuine Swiss version, I wonder if it comes complete with the wrist 
of the original owner.) No, my Timex is good enough. Delete. The spam box is 
empty and I turn to other projects for the day. Dull stuff for the most part, but 
by this time tomorrow I probably will have won another lottery, so there's some- 
thing exciting to look forward to. 

Junk mail has been with us a long time. Ed McMahon and I have become 
real pen palls over the years. Every few months he writes to tell me of some 
vast sum of money I have already won. Anyone who has ever subscribed to any 
magazine goes onto a mailing list for other magazines looking for new readers. 
A listing in The Catholic Directory guarantees a on-going supply of ball point pens 
and personalized mailing labels from various fund-raising organizations, espe- 
cially around Christmastime. Buying a pair of socks from a mail-order company 
puts one on track to build a library of clothing catalogues, guaranteed to be up- 
dated every month for the rest of one's natural life. 

The intrusion into private space is nothing new either. Every time we turn 
on a radio or watch a television program, someone violates our privacy by try- 
ing to sell us products we don't want. Drivers have billboards pushing some 
message through their windshields, and now even toll booths have sponsors. 
The highway authority picks one pocket while a credit agency tries to pick the 
other. Even in the movies, a ten-dollar ticket does not protect the hapless cus- 
tomer from being pummeled by a cascade of ads not only for five-pound drums 
of popcorn and supersized Slurpies, sold right in the lobby, but for condomin- 
iums in Florida, right next to a golf course. Then they turn up the volume for 
fifteen minutes of ear-splitting commercials (the professional term is "creating 
buzz") for other movies that won't be released for several months. 

But we have to admit e-mail spam is something quite different. At a mini- 
mal cost, someone can send out millions of these things with the click of a mouse. 
The law of averages works with the spammers. Out of a million strikes, they can 
be sure that at least occasionally someone will be gullible enough to send the 
hundred pounds to London. The volume is astounding. I used to get two or 
three pieces of paper junk mail in the course of a week. Now I clean out from ten 
to twenty spam items every day, many of which, to put it tactfully, are patently 
offensive. Less tactfully, revolting. It's out of control. 

iv 



Swindlers and scam artists aren't the only problem. Here I have to choose 
my words very carefully. Now anyone can put up a web site or make a comment 
on a blog site. Many are intended to provide a genuine service, but without some 
form of regulation there can be problems. These can be as innocent as inadver- 
tently posting inaccurate information in a Wikipedia entry (which explains why 
some universities have put it off-limits for students doing term papers) or as ma- 
licious as the posting of unadulterated lies about a political opponent during a 
campaign. Even church people have been accused on occasion of posting mis- 
information about a public figure's religious convictions or about some group's 
"loyalty" or "orthodoxy." In the past, editors of reputable journals would try 
to ensure some level of truth, if only to protect the reputation of their publica- 
tion. We have regulations about sending unsolicited obscene materials through 
the mails. Slander laws keep some of our more loud-mouthed radio and televi- 
sion commentators within the boundaries of reason, and the Federal Communi- 
cations Commission, on occasion — on very rare occasions — tries to rein in some 
I comic or talk show host who wants to test the limits of community standards. 
But as yet, no one is looking over the Internet. It seems bloggers can say what- 
ever they want, and the lie, distortion, or unfairness stays out in cyberspace until 
someone refutes it. By the time they do, the harm is done. 

In this rapidly changing world of communication. Bob Kaslyn suggests 
that it may be time for American Jesuits to revisit a few of our own regulations 
and customs regarding the distribution of materials we put out for public con- 
sumption. A good number of Jesuit ministries have set up their own web sites 
for genuinely apostolic purposes. These represent not only the individual Jesuit 
who runs them, but the institution he works for and ultimately the Society and 
the Church. No one uses the word "censorship" comfortably in an American con- 
text or even in a post-Vatican II context, and no adult is happy about submitting 
writings to someone else for approval. The issue can be reduced to the odious ex- 
pression "thought control." Yet the potential for miscalculation, misunderstand- 
ing, and eventual embarrassment remain very real risks for any Jesuit who goes 
public with his ideas. 

The problem extends beyond the Internet. These days it is not uncommon 
for a Jesuit to be contacted by the press for instant analysis of some Church-re- 
lated item in the news. Print reporters have deadlines, and the twenty-four-hour 
news cycle forces cable and even broadcast stations to get the story out right now, 
if not yesterday, lest they be scooped by the competition. Seeking clearance for a 
ten-minute telephone interview, of which thirty seconds might be used, strikes 
many of us who have been in that situation as a bit ururealistic. Reporters will 
never give editorial rights to their subjects, and as a result we have no control 
over how they will use our words. 

To cite one personal example, a few years ago a reporter from the New York 
Times called to ask me if I thought The March of the Penguins was a moral parable 
in support of "family values" among humans. I told him it was a beautiful nature 
documentary, period. He pushed me. He cited several church spokesman stand- 
ing clearly to my right who predictably argued that the film was a clear condemna- 



tion of homosexuality, extramarital sex, and divorce. Not wanting to start an inter- 
denominational incident over a movie about birds, I tried to be respectful of their 
opinions and said something ecumenically sensitive like, '1 suppose you could 
interpret it that way''; with the implied but unspoken subtext, ''but it would be 
silly." The quote came out, "You could interpret it that way," thus supporting the 
author's presupposition of unanimity among church establishments. Then came 
angry e-mails and calls from scientists (you don't know penguins) and gay activ- 
ists (the churches hate us). By this time I would have preferred to be freezing my 
flippers with those dopey penguins in Antarctica than cavorting on the pages of 
The Times. I don't blame the reporter. He had a piece to submit on deadline and 
within his space limit. He had to present a simple thesis without muddying the 
waters with conflicting opinions that undercut the point of his story. It happens. 

Not all Jesuit media involvement faces time constraints, and realistically 
an author could seek prior approval in many instances. One thinks especially of 
academic publication. A problem remains. A Jesuit writes as an individual schol- 
ar spelling out the results of his own research and reflection, but at the same time, 
he writes as a representative of the Church, the Society of Jesus, and the academ- 
ic institution. Clearly, the potential for conflict between these two perspectives 
exists, as history has shown on many occasions. Again the wide variety of subject 
areas and periodicals make generalizations very difficult. An article or book on a 
hot-button ecclesiastical issue, like stem-cell research or papal authority should 
probably be treated differently than would a study of the digamma in Homeric 
hexameters or protein inhibition in earthworms in Guatemala. Academic jour- 
nals have referees and editors, who presumably take responsibility for the accu- 
racy and credibility of their publications. When is it appropriate for church au- 
thorities to insist on yet another round of vetting? 

Writing as a canon lawyer. Bob leads us through several of the thickets 
of Church law and Jesuit practice, past and present. Much of the material he 
provides in the opening sections and the appendices can be used as a reference 
source when questions arise. The documents are complex, as legal writings gen- 
erally are. Even those of us who are not legal scholars and thus may lack the ex- 
pertise to work through all the evidence Bob presents, will surely find the section 
"Norms and Praxis" both accessible and illuminating. At the end, although some 
of the major problems remain unresolved, thanks to Bob's efforts we will have a 
clearer sense of the issues. As is usually the case in such complicated matters, ab- 
solutist solutions on either side can be deceptive. In gray areas of law and prac- 
tice, prudence reigns, but at least with Bob's help we have a better understand- 
ing of the decisions we're trying to be prudent about. 

A few second words. . . 

The beginning of another academic year brings our annual spin of the re- 
volving door for the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality. 

First of all, the Seminar — and by extension the entire U.S. Assistancy — 
thanks Jerry McKevitt and Phil Rosato at the completion of their three-year terms 
on our board. We will miss their insightful comments on submitted manuscripts 

vi 



and their lively comments during our discussions. Our friendship endures, of 
course, but we will miss having the opportunity to see them several times a year 
at our meetings. 

Newly elected to the Seminar are Bentley Anderson and Mick McCarthy. 

Bentley a member of the New Orleans Province, is associate professor of 
history at St. Louis University. He did his Ph.D. in American history at Boston 
College. He wrote Black, White and Catholic: New Orleans Interracialism, 1947-1956, 
published by Vanderbilt University Press. While continuing his research into 
race relations in the post-war United States, he has spent time in Zimbabwe and 
South Africa to add a comparative dimension to his research. 

Mick is a member of the California Province. After reading the humani- 
ties "greats" at Oxford University, he went to Notre Dame for his Ph.D., special- 
izing in patristic literature on the Psalms, with special focus on St. Augustine. He 
is currently assistant professor at Santa Clara, holding a joint appointment in the 
Departments of Classics and Religious Studies. 

Welcome to the Seminar! 

A close reading of the inside front cover will reveal that several of our 
returning members have undergone transitions. Over the past few months Jim 
Bretzke has joined the faculty of the newly founded Boston College School of 
Theology and Ministry. Tom Massaro remained on the faculty of Weston Je- 
suit School of Theology, but now the entire school is in the process of moving 
from Cambridge to the Brighton campus of Boston College, where it will now 
be considered part of the School of Theology and Ministry. Pat Howell has 
added the title of rector to his role as Vice President for Mission and Ministry 
at Seattle University. 

A final note: The Jesuit Conference has begun to put current issues of 
Studies on its website. This is an experiment and a preparation. As is the case 
with almost all academic journals, we keep looking at the inevitable rise in the 
costs of production and postage. We're all searching for the proper balance to 
make our publication available to the widest audience at the least expense. If 
some day Studies has to adjust it distribution system in some way, weTl have 
the experience to make an informed judgment. In the meantime, enjoy your 
printed copy. We have no plans to change in the immediate future, but it's best 
to prepare for the future. 



Richard A. Blake, S.J. 
Editor 



mt 



CONTENTS 



I. Introduction 1 

11. Proper Law of the Society of Jesus 4 

The Constitutions and Complementary Norms 6 

Father Kolvenbach on Publishing 10 

Books and Other Writings and Creative Works 11 

Article I: Norms from the Common Law 11 

Article IL Norms Proper to the Society of Jesus 14 

in. Publications Requiring Permission 21 

The Competent Authority 22 

The Expert Examiner 23 

IV. Norms and Praxis 25 

V. Concluding Remarks 28 

Appendex 1 31 

Appendix II 37 



IX 



Robert ]. Kaslyn, S.J., entered the New York province in 1975. Af- 
ter completing the licentiate in systematic theology at Regis College 
of the Toronto School of Theology, he began the study of canon law at 
St. Paul University, Ottawa, Ontario, where he received theJ.C.D. in 
1993. While teaching canon law at the Weston Jesuit School of theol- 
ogy, in Cambridge, Mass., he served on the tribunal of the Diocese of 
Worcester. He is currently a tenured associate professor of canon law 
at the Catholic University of America, in Washington, D.C. He is a 
member of the Canon Law Society of America and other professional 
organizations. 



X 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing 

Overview of Guidelines and Praxis 



Throughout its history, the Society of Jesus has considered 
writing and publication among its more important minis- 
tries. Its documents have tried to balance individual initia- 
tives of authors with their responsibilities to the Church and 
the Society. Changing patterns in communication, includ- 
ing new technologies, urge revisiting the tradition to evalu- 
ate the proper balance in the responsibilities of authors and 
superiors. 



I. Introduction 

In an article in America, Andrew Greeley begins by recalling the pub- 
lication of his first article (in America) and the reaction of his pastor 
who had reprimanded him for that action.^ Afterwards, Father Gree- 
ley secured permission to publish, noting, however, "Theoretically a di- 
ocesan priest did not need permission to write, as I understand the Jesu- 
its did at that time/' 

"As the Jesuits did at that time. . . ." Well, in fact, both then and 
now, Jesuits do need permission to publish. Recently (November 2006) 
the Provincials of the United States Assistancy, through the Jesuit Confer- 
ence, issued both a letter and a set of Protocols for Publishing and Interact- 



^ Andrew M. Greeley, "A Writer or a Parish Priest Who Writes," America 
(January 1-8, 2007): 14. 



2 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, S.J. 



ing with the Media} The Protocols, based upon An Ordinatio on Writings^ 
and the Manual for Juridical Practice"^ have two specific aims in mind: (1) 
to highlight key elements from the norms on publishing and (2) to of- 
fer clarifications on the ways in which the norms apply to new forms of 
communication. 

As a canonist and Jesuit, investigating specific themes arising 
from law and, more specifically, from Jesuit law, provides one means for 
deeper understanding, interpretation, and application of the law. But 
the law exists primarily "to create such an order in the ecclesial society 
that, while assigning the primacy to love, grace, and charisms, it at the 
same time renders their organic development easier in the life of both 
the ecclesial society and the individual persons who belong to it.''^ In 
other words, law is not an end in and of itself but rather is at the service 
of the Church and the Society and thus must necessarily relate to theol- 
ogy (including ecclesiology) and, more specifically, to the foundational 
documents of the Society. 

At the same time, I will forthrightly admit that certain issues ex- 
ist that might argue against offering this article for publication. First, 
an article concerned with legal norms immediately raises questions and 



^Jesuit Conference, Letter on Protocols, November 2006 (hereafter, JCLet- 
ter); and Protocols for Publishing and Interacting with Media, which concludes with 
the phrase "Approved by the Provincials of the United States on October 11, 
2006" and was published in November with the JCLetter (hereafter, JCProtocols). 

^Father General Kolvenbach, S.J., Ordinatio de scriptis aliisque operibus pub- 
licationi destinatis, February 4, 1987, and Normae Societati lesu propriae, in Acta 
Romana Societis lesu 19 (1987): 1016-17 and 1018-24 respectively. In the English 
version (there are also Spanish and French versions) of the letter "To All Major 
Superiors," Johannes Gerhartz, S.J., then Secretary of the Society, notes that this 
document is intended for the whole Society; the official text is Latin; and a ver- 
nacular translation may be made with his review. 

^Manual for Juridical Practice of the Society of Jesus (Rome, Curia of the Su- 
perior General of the Society of Jesus, 1997). (Hereafter cited as Manual for Juridi- 
cal Practice). Appendix I, nos. 308-45, entitled "Books and Other Creative Works 
Intended for Publication in Any Way," provides an English translation (as well 
as a reordering) of the Normae established by Father General (Footnote 3). I will 
use Norms to refer to the English translation, Normae to the Latin original and Or- 
dinatio to Father General's letter promulgating the Normae. 

^John Paul II, apostolic constitution, Sacrae Disciplinae leges, January 25, 
1983, English translation found in Code of Canon Law, Latin-English Edition. [=cic] 
Translation prepared under the auspices of the Canon Law Society of America 
(Washington, DC: Canon Law Society of America, 1983), xxix-xxx. 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 



differing perspectives about the place and role of law (either civil or 
ecclesiastical or both): for example, the role of law for members of the 
Church and of the Society of Jesus as well as for members of civil socie- 
ties, the relationship between justice and law, the application of law. A 
second issue raises historical, methodological, and practical questions: 
the Society's law^ on publications relates most directly to publishing in 
the technical sense, that is, the printed word. Numerous difficulties can 
and do arise when such norms are applied to the Internet — ^blogging, 
on-line ''publications,'' opinion and web sites, etc. 

In addition to questions about the role of law and practical and 
historical questions related to the Society's norms on publishing, a 
third issue focuses on the fact that, in reference to publishing, the uni- 
versal law of the Church has much less strict requirements than does 
the proper law of the Society of Jesus. In reference to canon law, James 
Coriden states: 

After an initial canon on the promotion and use of all media in pursuit 
of the Church's mission, most of the canons are concerned with the pri- 
or censorship of a very narrow range of official or semi-official publi- 
cations, i.e., biblical and liturgical texts, prayer books, catechisms, reli- 
gious textbooks, and literature distributed in Churches. The imprimatur 
is now limited in practice to these categories of books.^ 

That is true of the imprimatur; it is not true of the Society's own law con- 
cerning publishing. 

For the positive reasons mentioned above as well as despite the 
difficulties already noted (or, perhaps, even because of them), I offer this 
article for reflection and consideration by my fellow Jesuits. The issues 
raised above, as well as others as readily or even more apparent, relate 
to the very nature of the power of the published word (understood in its 
broadest sense). Many people use this power on a daily basis, at times 
for good, at other times for ill. The primary purpose of this article, at 



James Coriden, "Title IV, Instruments of Social Communication and 
Books in Particular [cc. 822-832]" in New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law [= 
New Commentary], ed. John Beal et al. (New York/Mahwah: Paulist Press, 2000), 
977. See also his article "The End of the Imprimatur," The Jurist 44 (1984): 339- 
56. On page 340, discussing the process of changing the norms on censorship, 
Coriden states, "The range of writings requiring the imprimatur was narrowed 
down to those few basic categories of works which are considered most 'officiar 
and whose need for accuracy calls for special screening." For an overview of 
canons 822 to 832, see the chart found in Appendix II of this essay. 



4 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, S.J. 



least for me, is to stimulate discussion, reflection, and dialogue on this 
important apostolate and the means by which Jesuits fulfill their apos- 
tolic mission through the word. 

Further, the United States Provincials, in issuing their Protocols 
through the Jesuit Conference, clearly perceive the importance of the 
norms covering publications (understood in its broadest sense). These 
Protocols invite all Jesuits to reflect upon the ministry of publication in 
light not only of the Norms but also of their own vocation, apostolate, 
membership in the Society and various Jesuit relationships both ad intra 
and ad extra 7 

Specifically, I shall present the Norms governing publication by 
Jesuits and offer some commentary on them, aided by the recent let- 
ter from the Provincials of the United States. To provide a clearer foun- 
dation for understanding and implementing these Norms, I will first 
present two topics in summary form. The first concerns the issue of the 
''proper law'' of the Society of Jesus and where this may be found. The 
second topic focuses on references in the Constitutions and the Comple- 
mentary Norms^ to publications, primarily with the purpose of provid- 
ing a specific context to allow for a proper understanding and applica- 
tion of the Norms by members of the Society of Jesus. 

11. Proper Law of the Society of Jesus 

As a general category, the phrase ''proper law" pertains to per- 
sons rather than to territory and thus applies to specific persons 
independent of their physical location. Proper law in this sense 
would include the law governing specific religious institutes such as the 
Society of Jesus.^ 



^ In other words, reflection on the way the published word affects rela- 
tionships among Jesuits themselves as well as its effect on the relationship be- 
tween the Society as a whole and the Church and the world. 

Q 

For both of these texts, I will refer to the following text: John Padberg, 
general editor. The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus and Their Complementary 
Norms: A Complete English Translation of the Official Latin Text (Saint Louis: Insti- 
tute of Jesuit Sources, 1994). I shall cite this text as Cons. Comp. Norms with para- 
graph numbers preceded by "no." 

^Further, "proper law" is distinguished from "universal law" or, as it is 
also known, "common law {ius commune)." "Universal law" refers to law involv- 
ing the whole of the Latin Church, primarily but not exclusively: the Code of Can- 



i 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 



For the Society, the fundamental text in English is Cons.Comp. 
Norms (cited in footnote 8). This text includes the Formulas of the Insti- 
tute of Popes Paul III and Julius III, the Constitutions of the Society of Je- 
sus, and Complementary Norms to the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus. 
These texts "must be considered by all as the primary expression of our 
proper law and of our way of proceeding, so that the entire life of the So- 
ciety may be inspired and governed by them/'^° Complementary texts 
include Statutes on Religious Poverty in the Society of Jesus and Instruction 
on the Administration ofGoods}^ 

Other texts, such as the Manual for Juridical Practice, serve as ''prac- 
tical and complementary instruments'' for implementing those funda- 
mental texts in the life of the Society and of individual Jesuits. A second 
example of a similar complementary text is Practica Quaedam: Norms for 
Correspondence with Father General and Other Concrete Business Matters}^ 
These texts — inasmuch as they are secondary and dependent upon the 

on Law [^cic]; or for the whole of the Eastern Churches, Codex Canonum Ecclesiar- 
um Orientalium [=cceo] (Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1990). The cic 
is divided into 1752 canons distributed among seven books; certain canons are 
divided into paragraphs, indicated by canon number and the paragraph sign [§] 
and, at times, further divided into articles indicated by a number and the super- 
script [°]. The CCEO is divided into thirty titles instead of other books but is oth- 
erwise cited as is the cic. Finally, "particular law" governs particular territories, 
e.g., the United States, individual dioceses and archdioceses. Law for the Unit- 
ed States includes norms established by the United States Conference of Bish- 
ops such as Essential Norms for Diocesan/ Eparchial Policies Dealing with Allegations 
of Sexual Abuse of Minors by Priests or Deacons, second edition, approved 2006 as 
well as norms enacted by various bishops for their own diocese 

^°Hans Zwiefelhofer, S.J., then Secretary of the Society of Jesus, "Intro- 
ductory Notice," Manual for Juridical Practice, vi. According to cic c. 587 §1, the 
"fundamental norms" of an institute should deal with "governance, discipline of 
members, incorporation and formation of menibers and the proper object of the 
sacred bonds." Such fundamental norms are "approved by competent Church 
authority and can be changed only with its consent." 

^^Rome, General Curia of the Society of Jesus, 2005. In his "Preface," Fa- 
ther Kolvenbach notes the difference between the Statutes and the Instruction; 
the former "brings together the various decrees of the General Congregations 
and the legislation of the Generals of the Society since the time of St. Ignatius on 
this matter" whereas the Instruction has as its purpose "to instruct and counsel 
Jesuits and others about the role of poverty in our management of the goods of 
'our Lord Jesus Christ and his poor' that are entrusted to us." The Instruction 
depends upon the Statutes, serving to implement those norms. 

^^Rome, Curia of the Superior General, 1991. 



6 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, S.J. 

primary foundational texts — are capable of modification according to 
the needs of times and places, provided, of course, that they remain in 
agreement with their fundamental sources. ^^ 

The Constitutions and Complementary Norms 

In the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus, Part VII: 'The Relations 
to Their Neighbor of Those Already Incorporated in the Society When 
They Are Dispersed into the Vineyard of Christ Our Lord'' includes the 
pertinent paragraph on publishing. Part VII is itself divided into four 
chapters: 

1. Missions from the Supreme Pontiff 

2. Missions received from the Superior of the Society. 

3. A Member's Free Movement from One Place to Another 

4. Ways in Which the Houses and Colleges Can Help Their Neigh- 
bors 

Chapter 4 contains the following provision in no. 653: 

One who has talent to write books useful for the common good and who 
has written them ought not to publish any writing unless the superior 
general sees it first and has it read and examined, so that if it is judged 
apt to edify, it may be published, and otherwise not. 

In his commentary on the Constitutions, Antonio de Aldama first 
notes the basic distinction within the provision between writing as an 
activity of the Society of Jesus and the qualities of such writing. ^^ 

In reference to the former, some concern arose in the early Society 
as to whether or not Jesuits ought to be writing and publishing books; 
nonetheless, Ignatius did consider writing to be one of the means to 



^^See cic c. 587 §4 which discusses the norms secondary to the more fun- 
damental documents of the institute: "Other norms estabUshed by competent au- 
thority of an institute are to be collected suitably in other codes and, moreover, 
can be reviewed appropriately and adapted according to the needs of places and 
times." Another important issue is the interpretation of law; e.g., the recognition 
that not every law creates an obligation to act or to refrain from acting; some 
norms are exhortatory, others reflect a specific philosophical theory and still oth- 
ers offer options. 

^^ Antonio M. de Aldama, S.J., The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus. Part 
VII, Missioning (Saint Louis, The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1996), 217. 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 7 



help the neighbor. ^^ In his work on the first Jesuits, John O'Malley notes 
that Jesuits only slowly grasped the usefulness of printing: 

[I]t was inevitable, however, that the Jesuits turn to the printing press 
and Ignatius himself gave an impetus to it that the Constitutions do not 
reflect. He came to support especially two categories of publication — 
writings to refute the heretics and writings to aid Jesuits in their ministry. 
In a letter to Canisius, 13 August 1554, he encouraged Jesuits in Germa- 
ny to counter Protestant pamphlets with their own, and he did the same 
in a letter to Nadal the next year He encouraged Polanco to compile the 
manual for Jesuit confessors, Canisius to write his catechism, and Lainez 
to write a compendium of theology adapted to pastoral needs.^^ 

Thus, from the time of Ignatius, Jesuits began to write and publish texts 
even though the Constitutions did not foresee large numbers of texts be- 
ing published. As this ministry kept increasing, ''it became more and 
more difficult for all the books to get the General's approval. This is 
why the provincials were subsequently given this power, partially first, 
for concrete cases, and then (with Roothaan and Beckx) in a more gener- 
al way. They only reserved for themselves specific areas, such as books 
on the Institute." ^^ 

According to de Aldama, the ministry of writing required permis- 
sion for two reasons: first, other apostolic works as profitable as writing 
also demanded good and able men and, second, to address specific dif- 
ficulties which arose when ecclesiastical censors refused permission to 
publish works authors had already written. Further, if one has the talent 
to write, one should write; if one does not, then he must engage in some 
other fruitful ministry. ^^ 

De Aldama also refers to the quality of the writing, encapsulat- 
ed by the phrase in no. 653, "useful for the common good" and "apt to 
edify." These terms indicate that Ignatius held writing to be similar to 
preaching and administering the sacraments, that is, writing has a su- 
pernatural end and purpose, the spiritual betterment of men and wom- 
en: their goal is "intended 'to help and dispose souls to gain their ulti- 
mate end from the hand of God our creator and Lord [156].' This view is 



1993), 114. 



^5 Ibid., 219. 
John O'Malley, The First Jesuits (Cambridge, Harvard University Press 



17 

Ibid., 219 



De Aldama, Constitutions, Part VII, 221-22. 
i8 



8 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, S.J. 

confirmed by what the constitution adds, that the book should be such 
that it 'will edify [653].'"!^ 

Complementary Norms no. 296 modifies no. 653 of the Constitutions. 
The context for this paragraph is 'Tart VII, Chapter IV, The Ministries 
by Which the Society Fulfills Its Mission, 6. Intellectual Apostolate," 
293-97. Complementary Norms no. 293 §1 states that ''[r]esearch in phi- 
losophy and theology, in the other sciences and in every branch of hu- 
man culture, is extremely necessary to fulfill our mission today and to 
help the Church to understand the contemporary world and speak to it 
the Word of Salvation."^^ From this foundation, no. 295 reminds us "we 
must always actively seek to understand the mind of the hierarchical 
Church, having as our goal the Society's objective to help souls." And 
no. 296 talks directly on the topic of this essay: 

The office of writer should be regarded as a ministry that is most prof- 
itable to souls and altogether appropriate to the Society. Therefore, it is 
to be diligently encouraged by superiors. Regulations enacted both by 
the common law of the Church and our own Institute with regard to the 
publishing of books should be exactly and fairly put into practice.^^ 

Both the Constitutions and Complementary Norms contextualize pub- 
lishing as one of the ministries of the Society of Jesus. In de Aldama's 
outline, he includes "Chapter 4, Writing Books" among such apostolic 
works as "Good Example, Prayer that is Full of Desires, the Mass and 
other Divine Services; The Administration of the Sacraments; The Min- 
istry of God's Word; the Corporal Works of Mercy; How the Colleges 
Can Help Their Fellowmen; and The House Rules. "^^ 

Number 295, cited above, contains the phrase "hierarchical 
Church," a phrase perhaps coined by Saint Ignatius^^ and one which 



^^ Ibid., 220. The reference in brackets to 156 is to that number of the Con- 
stitutions. Both "useful for the common good" and "apt to edify" are essential to 
a proper understanding and application of the norms on publishing; see below, 
"Norms and Praxis". 

^° Cons. Comp. Norms cites the following sources for this norm: "GC 33, d. 1, 
no. 44; see GC 31, d. 29; GC 32 d. 4, nos. 59-60; GC 34, d. 16, nos. 1-3." 

^ Cons. Comp. Norms cites as its sources Father General's Ordinatio and Nor- 
mae discussed in footnote 3 above. 

^^See de Aldama, Constitutions, Part VII, Table of Contents vi-vii. 

^^See Avery Dulles, S.J., "Saint Ignatius and the Jesuit Theological Tradi- 
tion," in Studies in the Spirituality of Jesus 14 (March 1982): 9-10: "Ignatius speaks 
with great affection of the 'hierarchical Church,' a term which he himself ap- 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 



must be interpreted in view of his own ecclesiological mindset and 
spirituality. Hugo Rahner states, ''Any attempt to interpret the Exercis- 
es, and, for that matter, the Constitutions, will always have to fall back 
on the fundamental principle of Ignatian theology: Spirit and Church. 
Or — which comes to the same thing — unctio and ratio, the unction of 
the Spirit and reason of the heart." ^^ As one consequence, then, Rah- 
ner can also state, 'The theology of the early Society of Jesus oscillat- 
ed within this Ignatian dialectic: Spirit and Church, Christ and Pope, 
joy and cross, enthusiasm and _^— ^-^^^^^_^^^_^_ 
reason. From this dialecti- There are more and varied 

cal perspective, Rahner ad- opportunities offered for the 

dresses the issue of the early Society to fulfill its mission in the 
Jesuits being (either in the per- proclamation and defense of the 

ception of others or in reali- f^m^^ in promoting justice, 

ty or even both) as "hyper- ^^^ i^ restoring positive 

papal (papatissimir by citing dialogue and relationships 

a letter from Nadal to Lainez: between faith and culture, 

"Although the men of the So- 
ciety are papists, they are this ^^^~"'""^^"^^^~^^"""""""^^ 
only where they absolutely have to be and in nothing more [en lo que 
deven serlo y no en lo demds]; and even then, only with an eye to the glo- 
ry of God and the general good."^^ Thus, this dialectical perspective 
allows "not only for silent, unconditional service but also for honest 
criticism, in the balanced way described in the tenth Rule for Thinking 
with the Church {Exx. 362)."'^^ 

The same quotation from Nadal is also cited by John O'Malley 
in The First Jesuits in a section subtitled "The Papacy and the Popes." 
O'Malley states that the first Jesuits did not have any official or fully 
articulated ecclesiology^^ and, too often, scholars attempting to recon- 



L parently coined." Cardinal Dulles cites Yves Congar, L'Eglise de S. Augustin a 
I'epoque moderne (Paris, Cerf, 1970), 369 as a source. 

^"^Hugo Rahner, Ignatius the Theologian, trans. Michael Barry (San Francis- 
co, Ignatius Press, 1990), 235. 

^5 Ibid., 236. 

^^ Ibid., 237. 

^^ Ibid., 238. 

^^O'Malley, First Jesuits, 297. 



10 ^ Robert }. Kaslyn, S.J. 



struct their vision approach the topic too narrowly. In view of his own 
analysis, O'Malley concludes as follows: 

The early Jesuits thus often described the church without reference to ju- 
ridical structure and gave as much emphasis to the reciprocity of relation- 
ship among all members as they did to management from the top down. 
In other words, the horizontal dimension of the church was as strongly 
represented in what they wrote — as well as in how they operated — as 
was the vertical. What these scattered descriptions and metaphors point 
to, therefore, is the ecclesiological assumption found on practically ev- 
ery page of what they wrote. They projected from their own self-under- 
standing: the church was ''to help souls." Like themselves, the Church 
accomplished this task in a variety of ways and through a variety of per- 
sons, relationships and institutions.^^ 

This broader understanding of the ecclesiology — its context within the 
Ignatian vision — is essential for a proper understanding of phraseology 
such as "hierarchical church" and for providing a means to avoid mis- 
understandings and misuse. 

I will now turn to an examination of the Norms themselves. As a 
ministry of the Society, publishing must occur within the broader con- 
text of the Society of Jesus, its fundamental mission, and the intentions 
and desires of Saint Ignatius Loyola. This context gives a specifically Je- 
suit cast to publishing, one that is clarified through the specific norms 
governing this ministerial activity. 

Father Kolvenbach on Publishing 

As already noted. Father General Kolvenbach promulgated the 
current norms on February 4, 1987 in Acta Romana Societatis lesu (see 
footnote 3). In his letter of promulgation. Father Kolvenbach begins 
by noting that the ministry of publishing proper to the Society has re- 
ceived new impetus in our times. There are more and varied opportuni- 
ties offered for the Society to fulfill its mission in the proclamation and 
defense of the faith, in promoting justice, and in restoring positive dia- 
logue and relationships between faith and culture.^^ He then cites Gen- 
eral Congregation XXXIII: "Research in philosophical and theological 



^9 Ibid., 298. 

^°See also JCLetter and JCProtocols; in JCLetter, the Provincials state, "The 
protocols seeks to provide a framework for transparency, taking full advantage 
of the opportunities to reach people in new ways while remaining true to our 
way of proceeding," 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 11 



knowledge and in other areas of knowledge and in every field of human 
culture is urgently required to help the Church to better understand the 
world of today and offer it the Word of Salvation/' '^^ 

These norms replace those established by Father General Pedro 
Arrupe in 1967 and their later articulation in 1976 take into account not 
only the Code of Canon Law promulgated in 1983 but also the experience 
of prior proper law. The last paragraph, the formal notification of the 
norms, urges all members of the Society and especially superiors to be 
mindful of the Society's apostolate, which has as its goal the good of the 
neighbor and the Church's mission in today's world.^^ 

Books and Other Writings and Creative Works 

Art I: Norms from the Common Law 

The first Article of this Appendix I in the Manual for Juridical Prac- 
tice begins with nine norms taken from the common law (that is, from the 
cic and /or cceo).^^ The clearest way to present this material is through 
the chart provided in Appendix II of this essay, which lists the catego- 
ry of publication, states from whom approval or permission or license 
should be obtained, and provides the legal references to the Manual for 
Juridical Practice, the Latin Code of Canon Law (cic) and the Eastern Code 
of Canons of the Eastern Churches (cceo). 

These universal law norms concern certain fundamental texts es- 
sential to the Church and to her mission today, such as texts of the Scrip- 
tures, liturgical and catechetical works and prayer books for use by the 
Christian faithful. Given their importance, certain of these universal 
norms have been included in the proper law of the Society, but with cer- 



3^GC XXXIII, d. 1, n. 44. 

^^For the specific quotation, see Father Kolvenbach, Ordinatio: "Earum 
omnium observantiam tum sodalibus omnibus tum praesertim Superioribus 
commendo, eo potissimum desiderio [sic] ut hie apostolatus, sicut in votes So- 
cietatis semper fuit, stimuletur et foveatur et bono proximorum atque missioni 
Ecclesiae perfectius in dies inserviat." 

^^ Appendix I of this essay includes a copy of the relevant norms. In the 
essay, I will use the numbering given in Manual for juridical Practice, which num- 
bers them consecutively with the 307 previous norms occurring in the body of 
that text; the pertinent number will have no. as prefix followed by a period. The 
second number in such citations — found in the Manual itself — refers to the num- 
bering system found in Normae cited in footnote 3. Finally, I should note that, in 
the Normae, these nine norms comprise an appendix and are listed last; see pag- 
es 1022-24. 



12 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, S.J. 



tain slight changes and omissions which do not significantly alter the 



norms. ^^ 



One further implication should also be noted here: while these 
universal norms apply to all Catholics through their incorporation into 
the Church through baptism or a formal profession of faith, we must 
recognize that many people. Catholic and non-Catholic alike, common- 
ly perceive Jesuits (and members of other institutes of consecrated life 
and societies of apostolic life) to represent (whether officially or un- 
officially factually or not) the Catholic Church. Finally, the presence 
of these common norms in Jesuit proper law reflects the fact that the 
great variety of ministries which Jesuits exercise throughout the United 
States and the world necessarily occur within the context of the Catho- 
lic Church and its mission of evangelization. Jesuits form one part and 
are at the service of a larger reality. ^^ 

This context of evangelization finds emphasis in documents is- 
sued by various Roman offices C'dicasteries")- For example, on March 
30, 1992, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued the In- 
struction on Some Aspects of the Use of the Instruments of Social Communi- 



^^For example, in no. 314 (citing c. 831 §1) the reference to the "Christian 
faithful" has been omitted, since no. 314 applies specifically to Jesuits. For ease 
of reference, Jesuit proper law combines norms -found in two different books in 
cic — from both "Book III, The Teaching Office of the Church, Title IV, Instru- 
ments of Social Communication and Books in Particular" and from. "Book IV, The 
Sanctifying Office of the Church;" the latter explicitly cites the liturgical books. 
Similar changes are seen in comparison of footnote references to the cceo; giv- 
en the nature of the Eastern Churches, these canons take into account the gov- 
ernance structures and law of the various Churches sui iuris as well as the prin- 
ciple of subsidiarity. 

^^ James Coriden also highlights another context for understanding these 
norms. In "Title IV, Instruments of Social Communication," Coriden states, 
"These regulations on the use of the media must be viewed against the back- 
ground of the fundamental rights and duties of the Christian faithful: to help 
with the communication of God's message of salvation (c. 211), to make their 
needs and opinions known (c. 212), and to be inform.ed {Communio et Progres- 
sio 119)" [977]. Men and women in institutes of consecrated life and societies of 
apostolic life do not lose these fundamental rights and duties when they freely 
enter into consecrated life, yet they must exercise them within the context of each 
one's institute as well as their own profession of vows or other bonds. 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 13 



cation in Promoting the Doctrine of the Paith?^ The Instruction begins by 
noting the importance of various publishing media: 

The social communications media surely have to be counted among the 
most effective instruments available today for spreading the message 
of the Gospel. Not only does the Church claim the right to use them (cf . 
can. 747); she also encourages Bishops to take advantage of them in ful- 
filling their mission (cf. can. 822, §1). . . . Religious superiors, especially 
major superiors, also have specific responsibilities in this regard by vir- 
tue of their disciplinary authority. [Instruction: Introduction] 

Further: 

The norms of canon law guarantee the freedom of all: whether it be the 
individual Christian faithful who have a right to receive the Gospel mes- 
sage in all its integrity and purity or those engaged in pastoral work, 
theologians, and all Catholics engaged in journalism who have the right 
to communicate their thought ^^^__^^___,,^^^__^^^__^^^^^^_ 



while maintaining the integri- 
ty of the faith and the Church's Ignatius's service of the Church 
teaching on morals and due ^^^ of the pope was service of the 
respect for the Bishops. By the Lord; in other words, the call to he 
same token, civil laws regard- companions of Jesus occurs within 
ing the dissemination of infor- the Church and at the service of 
mation should protect and fos- the pope as the head of the Church, 
ter the right of all who use the 
social communications media —-— — — ^-^-^— ^— ^— — 



to a truthful presentation of the facts. They likewise assure journalists in 
general of the right to communicate their thought within the limits of a 
professional code of ethics which also has concern for the way in which 
religious topics are handled. [Instruction: Introduction] 

In reference to institutes of consecrated life and societies of apos- 
tolic life, the Instruction notes: 

§2. Apostolic action on the part of religious institutes is to be exercised in 
the name and by the mandate of the Church and should be carried out in 
communion with her (cf. can. 675, §3). The prescription of can. 209, §1 on 
the obligation which all the Christian faithful have always to maintain 
communion with the Church in their patterns of activity has particular 



^ Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, instruction, March 30, 1992, 
Instruction on Some Aspects of the Use of the Instruments of Social Communication in 
Promoting the Doctrine of the Faith, available on the web at littp://www. Vatican, va/ 

roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/dociiments/rc_con_cfaith_doc_19920330_ 
istruzione-pccs__en.html 



24 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, S.J. 



application in the case of religious. [Instruction: III, Responsibility of Re- 
ligious Superiors, 16]. 

Other curial documents also echo the importance of new media in 
evangelization: 

Since announcing the Good News to people formed by a media culture 
requires taking carefully into account the special characteristics of the 
media themselves, the Church now needs to understand the Internet. 
This is necessary in order to communicate effectively with people — es- 
pecially young people — who are steeped in the experience of this new 
technology, and also in order to use it well. The media offer important 
benefits and advantages from a religious perspective. [The Church: 5]^^ 

Such concern for evangelization relates not only to the norms common 
to universal law, but also the norms of the Society of Jesus, to which I 
shall now turn. 

Art II. Norms Proper to the Society of Jesus 

Article II is entitled ''Norms Proper to the Society of Jesus" and is 
divided as follows: 

1. "General principles": no. 317. 1-320. 4; 

2. "Publications which require the permission of superiors": nos. 
321. 5-326. 10; 

3. "The competent authority for giving permission": nos. 327. 11- 
332. 16; 

4. "Prerequisites for permission to publish": nos. 333. 17-337. 22; 

5. "The function of the expert examiner": nos. 338. 22-342. 26; 

6. "What is to be done after permission to publish has been given": 
nos. 343. 27-345. 29; 

Thus, Article II flows in an orderly progression, reflecting the pro- 
cess through which Jesuit works become published 

1. "General Principles" serves to provide a foundation for the min- 
istry of publishing by members of the Society through basic principles 
that govern this work. To a certain extent, the "Principles" specifically 
and the Norms in general find their value, aim, and importance in the 
foundational documents of the Society: the Constitutions, the Comple- 



^^ Pontifical Council for Social Communications, February 22, 2002, The 
Church and Internet, available at http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_ 
councils/pccs/documents/rc_pc_pccs_doc_20020228_church-internet_en.html 



The Jes u it Min is try of Publish ing ^ 15 



mentary Norms and the Spiritual Exercises. In other words, the Norms 
presuppose and build upon the purpose and aim of the Society. 

The first general principle, no. 317. 1, finds its origin and spir- 
it in Complementary Norms 293-96, already discussed, which in turn is 
founded upon the Constitutions, no. 653. Communicating and pub- 
lishing the results of one's re- 
search in the sacred sciences — ^^— ^^^—— ^^^-^^— ^^^^^ 

and in other aspects of culture Rather, reverence and fidelity are 

is "di preeminent way of fulfill- placed within the specific context 
ing the mission proper to the of the purpose of the Society of 

Society'' and thus such a min- Jesus as a religious institute 

istry should be both highly re- in the Church, 

garded and promoted. None- ^^^^^^^^^^^^^_^_^^^^^^_ 
theless, at the same time, such 

ministry — as with all ministries of the Society — must have as its aim 
and purpose "the benefit and development of the neighbor" as well as 
"the spiritual good of individuals and the progress of the Church." 

The second norm deserves to be quoted in its entirety, as it flows 
from the first and underlies the other norms: 

No. 318. 2. The most important norm of the Society concerning the pub- 
lishing of books, articles and other works intended for wide circulation 
by audio-visual means is to be found especially in the personal respon- 
sibility of each Jesuit to keep constantly in mind his apostolic ecclesial 
mission for the spiritual good of others and his belonging to the body 
of the Society. Thus whatever he writes or sets forth can have repercus- 
sions on other members of the Society. 

A Jesuit, therefore, whose mission given by his superior includes publi- 
cations and disseminating information, must remember that he is not an 
isolated individual. As a member of an institute of consecrated life rec- 
ognized in the Church and, if he is ordained, as a public minister repre- 
senting the Church, then, for good or for ill a Jesuit must recognize that 
his work reflects on both the Church and the Society. At the same time, 
the norm recognizes that each Jesuit holds the primary responsibility 
for ensuring that the works he publishes do in fact work for the spiritual 
good of others and will not bring disrepute upon the Society. "^^ 



An analogous situation arises in reference to the responsibilities of the 
diocesan bishop to the diocesan clergy incardinated in his diocese. While can- 
on law recognizes that the bishop must ensure that his priests fulfill their re- 
sponsibilities, the law also recognizes that this is not a one-sided obligation. 



16 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, S.J. 



As for the meaning of "works intended for wide circulation," the 
U.S. Provincials stated that the norms for publishing as v/ell as their 
own Protocols 

. . . serve as a practical reference for superiors and individual Jesuits ap- 
plying our way of proceeding to "'new media" such as blogging or Pod- 
casting. While citing a few specific examples of "new media/' they are 
not meant to be exclusive of other examples. One should prudently in- 
clude all activities that are of a similar nature to those mentioned in the 
Protocols. [JCLetter] 

The JCProtocol further specifies "new media": 

Publishing includes books, articles, letters to the editor, etc. Blogs and 
personal websites are also considered publishing. Therefore a Jesuit 
must consult his local superior and receive written permission before 
undertaking these ventures. Blogs and personal websites should in- 
clude a clear disclaimier that the content is solely that of the individual 
and does not necessarily represent the Society of Jesus. [JCProtocolP^ 

As one consequence of his personal responsibility, therefore, each Jesu- 
it engaged in publishing does so as a member of the Society and thus 
should maintain "the tradition in the Society of serving the Church by 
explaining, propagating and defending the faith." Thus, Jesuits should 
be "mindful of their obligation of reverence and fidelity toward the 
magisterium of the Church" especially in reference to the pope and 
those who share the pastoral office with him (no. 319. 3). Certain practi- 
cal aspects of the exercise of this responsibility will be discussed below 
in the section entitled "Norms and Praxis." 

An analysis of the phrase, "obligation of reverence and fidelity" 
requires an essay in itself. In his thoughtful and important monograph. 

Each priest must recognize and exercise his own personal responsibiUty to fulfill 
the demands imposed on him by ordination, incardination and a specific munus 
(function, broadly understood) entrusted to him by his bishop and, reciprocal- 
ly, the bishop must recognize his own responsibility to encourage and support 
his priests. In as much as the bishop can and must presume the cooperation of 
his priests, so too does a Jesuit superior presume the cooperation of those Jesuits 
entrusted to his care and the latter will respond positively to the efforts of their 
superiors. 

^^It is important to note that, while a disclaimer might acknowledge and 
call attention to the difference between an individual Jesuit and the Society of 
Jesus considered as a whole, nonetheless, each Jesuit should be mindful that his 
work may be interpreted, criticized, or understood as reflecting the position of 
the Society on a specific issue. 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 17 



"Ignatius, the Popes and Realistic Reverence," John Padberg, S.J., of- 
fers some insight into an understanding of this phrase.^^ In his "Ques- 
tions and Conclusions," Padberg notes the complex inter-relationship 
between Ignatius and the popes he served and the various events that 
influenced this relationship, both positively and negatively. He then 
states: 

Finally, underlying all this was [Ignatius's] feeling of being at home in 
a Church composed of sinners, of saints, and of everything in-between, 
but a Church that was still, as Ignatius says in various places, our moth- 
er, a hierarchical body, Christ's kingdom, the community of the faithful, 
the vineyard of the Lord in which the Society was to work, Christ's mys- 
tical body governed on earth by his vicar. Ignatius wanted to serve that 
Church through the pope, because the pope had the most all-embracing 
view of the needs of the Church, the spouse of Christ, who above all and 
beyond all was the term of service and love.^^ 

Understanding today the "obligation of reverence and fidelity," 
then, involves an understanding of Ignatius' s own experience of the 
Church and of the papacy, our own experience of these realities as well 
as the experiences of those with whom we are engaged apostolically.^ 
Ultimately, Ignatius' s service of the Church and of the pope was ser- 
vice of the Lord; in other words, the call to be companions of Jesus oc- 
curs within the Church and at the service of the pope as the head of the 
Church.^-^ Such an understanding does not take away the obligation of 
reverence and fidelity; rather, reverence and fidelity are placed within 
the specific context of the purpose of the Society of Jesus as a religious 
institute in the Church.^ 



^°John Padberg, S.J., "Ignatius, the Popes and Realistic Reverence," Stud- 
ies in the Spirituality of Jesuits lb 1 3 (May 1993): v, 1-38. 

^^ Ibid., 32. 

4^See ibid., 34-35. 

'^^See Father Kolvenbach's comments on the Instruction on the Administra- 
tion of Goods in note 11: while the text is (both in intention and content) eminently 
practical, such practicality is necessarily rooted in the fact that temporal goods 
belong to Jesus Christ and to his poor; similarly, the obligation of reverence and 
fidelity finds its fuller meaning in the service of Jesus Christ and his people. Nei- 
ther of these perspectives denies that Jesuit ministerial activity occurs, for the 
most part, in the Catholic Church, but rather that the Catholic Church finds its 
origin, mission, and teleology in the service of Jesus Christ and His People. 

"^^ Similarly, understanding Ignatius's concept of thinking with the Church 
requires such a contextual approach. See, for example, Douglas Marcouiller, S.J., 



18 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, S.J. 

According to no. 320. 4 the work being disserriinated should possess 
four characteristics:^^ First, the work should be useful, congruent with the 
mission and works of the Society; this ties in with the first article, no. 317, 
as well as the fundamental texts of the Society. Second, the work ''should 
^.^^^^^^^^^^-^^^^^^^^^^. be better than average in its cat- 
The 1971 pastoral instruction ^^°'^" thereby fulfilling the ex- 

Communio et Progressio states, pectations of those for whom it 

"Since the Church is a living body, >^ intended. Third, the subject 
she needs public opinion in order "^^"^"^ "should agree with the 

to sustain a giving and taking ^^^t"^^^ °^ ^^^^^ ^^ "^o'"^^ 

between her members. " ^^ proposed by the magisteri- 

um of the Church with due re- 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^"^^^^^" gard for legitimate freedom of 
research.'' no. 320. 3° makes a distinction between materials that are dis- 
seminated for a general audience as opposed to those which are destined 
for experts in the field. Not only does the distinction arise from the nature 
of the material itself but is one that the Congregation for the Doctrine of 
the Faith (cdf) recognizes. In a 1990 document, the cdf stated. 

If, despite a loyal effort on the theologian's part, the difficulties persist 
[that is, concerning the acceptance of a non-irreformable magisterial 
teaching], the theologian has the duty to make known to the Magiste- 
rial authorities the problems raised by the teaching in itself, in the ar- 
guments proposed to justify it, or even in the manner in which it is pre- 
sented. He should do this in an evangelical spirit and with a profound 
desire to resolve the difficulties. His objections could then contribute 
to real progress and provide a stimulus to the Magisterium to propose 
the teaching of the Church in greater depth and with a clearer presenta- 
tion of the arguments. In cases like these, the theologian should avoid 
turning to the "mass media," but have recourse to the responsible au- 
thority, for it is not by seeking to exert the pressure of public opinion 
that one contributes to the clarification of the doctrinal issues and with 
a clearer presentation of the argum.ents.^^ 



"Archbishop with an Attitude: Oscar Romero's Sentir con la Iglesia," in Studies in 
the Spirituality of the Jesuits 35/3 (May 2003). 

"^^See JCLetter and JCProtocols, both of which cite these four characteris- 
tics, emphasizing their importance for the Society. 

"^ Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction on the Ecclesial 
Vocation of the Theologian (Washington, D.C., usee 1990), no. 30, 18-19. See also 
that Congregation's Instruction on the Use of the Instruments of Social Communi- 
cation cited in note 36 which strikes a balance between the authority of the dio- 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 19 



Works submitted — and thereby judged as acceptable or not — to 
other experts in the same field aims at the progress of understanding 
and appreciation for the truths of the faith. In other words, the Jesuit 
author needs to adapt that which is published to the abilities of the 
audience: 

Jesuits also edit multi-language periodicals throughout the world. They 
do so because they want to communicate the message of salvation to 
their brothers and sisters with whom they collaborate in research proj- 
ects or in discussing important issues of the day These magazine and 
journals are geared to different types of readers. Some are highly scien- 
tific and therefore intended for special groups of scholars and specialists 
in a particular field of knowledge; then there are magazines of ''more 
general interest/' where the news of the day is looked at according to 
different points of view and then analyzed according to true humane 
and Christian values; there are also reviews which are theological, philo- 
sophical, scientific or literary in scope.^'^ 

The end is the same — proclaiming the message of salvation, the good of 
the neighbor, the mission of the Church — ^but the means are different, 
necessarily adapted to the needs and capacities of the audience. Thus, 
the requirements imposed on authors are different as well. 

As already noted (in footnote 35) James Coriden situates the 
norms on media within the context of the fundamental rights and obli- 
gations of the Christian faithful, including the right to make their needs 
and opinions known to others, found in canon 212, §3: 

According to the knowledge, competence and prestige which they pos- 
sess, they have the right and even at times the duty to manifest to sacred 

cesan bishop and the prudential exercise of such authority. The Instruction states 
in part, "Bishops, in as much as they are pastors and the ones primarily responsible for 
correct teaching about faith and morals (cf. cans. 386; 392; 753; and 756, §2), should 
make timely if prudent exercise of their right and duty of vigilance within their own dio- 
cese and proper jurisdiction" [Instruction: I. Bishops' Responsibilities in General, 1.4]. 
Immediately prior to this statement, the text exhorts bishops: "Bishops should maintain 
continual contact with the cultural and theological world of their respective dioceses. In 
this way, any difficulties arising may be quickly resolved through a fraternal dialogue 
which provides the interested parties with an opportunity to make the needed clarifica- 
tions. In following the procedures of canon law, disciplinary measures would be the last 
means to be applied (cf. can. I34I)" (Instruction: I. Bishops' Responsibilities in Gen- 
eral, 1.3). 

^^ Simon Decloux, S.J., The Ignatian Way (Chicago, Loyola University Press, 
1991), 52-53. 



20 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, SJ. 



pastors their opinion on matters which pertain to the good of the Church 
and to make their opinion known to the rest of the Christian faithful, 
without prejudice to the integrity of faith and morals, with reverence to- 
ward their pastors, and attentive to common advantage and the dignity 
of persons. 

The 1971 pastoral instruction Communio et Progressio states, "Since the 
Church is a living body, she needs public opinion in order to sustain a 
giving and taking between her members. Without this, she cannot ad- 
vance in thought and action. 'Something vs^ould be lacking in her life if 
she had no public opinion. Both pastors of souls and lay people w^ould 
be to blame for this."'^^ Interestingly enough, the last sentence in single 
quotation marks derives from Pope Pius XII.^^ 

The last norm in this section on general principles summarizes the 
basic attitude that should influence everything that is published as w^ell 
as the authors. No. 320. 4° states, 'The writings should contain noth- 
ing that could justifiably give offense to other persons, groups, nations 
or institutions. ''^° Such a norm should apply not only to the ministry of 
publishing but all ministerial activity. 

III. Publications Requiring Permissions 

Number 321 states as a general principle that Jesuits need writ- 
ten permission prior to making material available for public 
dissemination. The competent superior (to be discussed be- 
low) determines whether or not permission for issuing translations is 
necessary, provided the author of the original text had received permis- 
sion to publish. The same principle governs the publication of second 



^ Pontifical Council for Social Communications, pastoral instruction, Com- 
munio et Progressio, "On The Means of Social Comimunication Written by Order of 
the Second Vatican Council,) May 23, 1971, available at http://www.vatican.va/ 
roman_curia/pontifical_counciis/pccs/documents/rc_pc_pccs_doc_2305 1 97 1_ 
communio_en.html, no. 115 

^^ Communio et Progressio cites the following as the origin of the quotation: 
Pius XII, Allocution given on February 17, 1950, to those who were in Rome to 
participate in the International Congress for Editors of Catholic Periodicals, Acta 
Apostolicae Sedes, 18 (1950): 251. 

^° Note the adverb "justifiably" which modifies "give offense." In other 
words, civil authorities condemned for the unjust persecution of individuals for 
religious or political beliefs cannot be considered justifiably offended by such 
condemnation. 



The Jes u it Min is try of Publishing ^ 21 



and further editions of works if changes have been introduced (no. 322. 
6). Publications necessary for the fulfillment of a mission given by a su- 
perior (class notes, outlines, syllabi, etc.) do not require permission to be 
issued but copies should be made available to the superior of the com- 
munity or the director of the work (no. 323. 7). 

I had discussed above publications that require permission to pub- 
lish from the Holy See or from the local Ordinary (see Appendix II); pri- 
or to requesting such permission, the Jesuit should first seek permission 
from the competent superior in the Society (no. 324. 8). For occasional 
work in radio or television, the Jesuit should follow the common norms 
outlined above (nos. 317-20. 1-4) as well as the norms established by the 
conference of bishops for his territory if he is discussing faith or morals. 
Regular cooperation with the media requires permission of the provin- 
cial (no. 325. 9). The Provincials of the United States took cognizance of 
this when they stated that 

[tjhe occasional granting of media interviews would include respond- 
ing to a periodic request from a reporter for a quote. However, Jesu- 
its should be sensitive to situations where the provincial for special cir- 
cumstances may require that media requests be coordinated through the 
province office or other designated person before a response is to be giv- 
en. [JCProtocol] 

A related issue centers on the question of ''being quoted out of context''; 
that is, reporters might edit a five minute explanation into a ten word 
quote. A Jesuit who offers commentary to various media must use cau- 
tion to insure his remarks are not only used correctly but also correctly 
and properly understood and presented to the readership. 

The last norm in this section is an eminently practical one: before 
embarking on a major writing task or translation, or soon after beginning 
it, the Jesuit should discuss the matter with his superiors (no. 326. 10). Im- 
plementing such a practice could assist in avoiding unpleasant surprises 
for the author after he has invested much time, study, and effort into a 
work which, for a variety of reasons, might never be published. 

The Competent Authority 

As with the norms in common law, certain texts considered essen- 
tial or of greater importance require permission from higher authori- 
ty. Thus, the General gives permission to edit commentaries on the In- 
stitute, commentaries that the provincial deems "major" (no. 327. 11). 
The provincial is competent to grant permission to publish other works. 



11 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, SJ. 

including collaborative works, works in non-Jesuit publications, and 
works using any audio-visual format, (no. 328. 12) 

Permission to write for periodicals that habitually attack the 
Catholic Church or morals must be requested froni the local ordinary 
through the provincial (no. 329. 13). The superior can grant permission 
to write for newspapers, unless for some reason (the specific paper it- 
self, the subject matter, opportuneness of responding, the possibility of 
exacerbating the situation, etc.) he determines that he needs to consult 
the provincial (no. 330. 14). 

The provincial can grant delegated authority to presidents of aca- 
demic institutions or directors of communications media proper to the 
Society allowing them to give Jesuits the necessary permission to pub- 
lish works under their direction. This would also include, for example, 
editors of reviews.^^ Those who receive such delegated authority are 
responsible both to Society and ecclesial authorities in reference to that 
which pertains to faith and morals (no. 331. 15). In this section, "pro- 
vincial" refers to the provincial of the author; if the publisher is in an- 
other province, the provincial of that province must also give consent 
(no. 332. 16). 

The next five norms specify the requirements before the compe- 
tent Society authority gives permission to publish. The opinion of "at 
least one expert" should be sought if the subject matter concerns reli- 
gious or moral issues or related topics; more experts can be consulted 
if necessary or if the first expert urges non-publication (no. 333. 17). If 
the subject matter is not religious or moral, (or topics closely related to 
either), the superior can give permission, with or without the opinion of 
an expert. The Superior bases his decision upon the competence of the 
author and can give general permission to publish, provided it does not 
concern those reserved topics (no. 334. 18). 

No. 335. 19 provides for a unique situation. If special circum- 
stances — not further specified — recommend immediate publication in 
a newspaper, without time available to consult an expert, the superior 
can grant permission, with or without ascertaining the opinion of his 
consul tors. If the matter is so urgent, the article may be published pro- 
vided that the general norms in 317 to 320 are observed (that is, the na- 
ture of ministry in the Society; the personal responsibility of the author; 
reverence and fidelity toward the Church's magisterium; and the qual- 



^^De Aldama, Constitutions, Part VII, 222. 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 23 



ity, utility, congruity with Church teaching, and non-offensive nature of 
what is to be published). 

No. 336. 20 further specifies the role of experts. If the expert or ex- 
perts judge that the material can be published, the superior can either 
permit or refuse publication; in ^^^^^^^^^.^.^^^^^^...^.^^ 
other words, in this situation, 

he is not bound to allow publi- Th^ ^^P^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^P ^^ "^^^ 

cation simply due to a positive ^^^^ ^^ ^^^"^^ ^^^ ''restrict 

assessment from an expert. If unjustly personal freedom 

more than one expert deter- of research or opinion in matters 

mines that something should ^^^'^^ can freely he disputed 

not be published, the superi- ^^^^S Catholic authors'' 

or cannot grant permission to «^^ should consider both the type 
publish. If, however, one of a of periodical where the work will 

group of experts approves the '^^ published as well 

matter for publication, the su- ^^ ^^^ readership, 

perior can grant permission to ^^^^^— ^^^^^^^^^^— i-^^— ^ 
publish, provided the author 
makes any corrections which the superior deems necessary. 

If the competent superior decides not to give permission to pub- 
lish, he must present his reasons to the author of the work. For his part, 
the author has the right of appeal against the decision not to publish 
(no. 337. 21).^2 

The Expert Examiner 

Five norms govern the function of the expert examiner. The first, 
no. 338. 22, offers foundational principles: the examiner must remem- 
ber that he is responsible both to the Society and to the Church, and he 
should exercise his function while ''keeping in mind the spiritual good 
of others, the teaching of the Church and the way of proceeding proper 
to the Society.'' 

Further, no. 339. 23 reminds us that the expert must put aside "all 
deference to the person," or, in other words, he should avoid making a 
preliminary judgment on the work being assessed due to the person of 
the author or the office someone holds. For example, "As the work of 
Father Provincial, it must be without error" or "Father Smith has two 
doctorates and therefore he knows what he is talking about." The ex- 



52 



Such recourse is also found in the universal law, cic . 1732-39. 



24 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, SJ. 



pert should base his assessment on the four criteria specified in no. 320.4 
(that is, the nature of ministry in the Society; the personal responsibility 
of the author; reverence and fidelity toward the Church's magisterium; 
and the quality, utility, congruity with Church teaching, and non-offen- 
sive nature of that to be published.). The expert needs to keep in mind 
the distinction made both in no. 320. 4. 3° and the CDF Instruction on the 
Ecclesial Vocation of the Theologianf^ that is, he should not "restrict unjust- 
ly personal freedom of research or opinion in matters which can freely 
___^___^_^_^__.,^_____^^^^ be disputed among Catholic 

. ,, .,.,.. authors" and should consid- 

Supenors Qtven the responsibility \^ xx. tx. ^ c • j- i 

.^ ^ ,. ^..,.t ^ er both the type of periodical 

to ensure compliance with the i .i ■' ^. .fi . , 

..,;;.. . where the work will be v^- 

norms of the Society concerning r u j n -u a 

, , . /. , , V t lished as well as its reader- 

puhlications should and can i. 

presume that they are working 

with adults who are responsible ^^^ expert should 

and capable of mature decisions. S^^^ ^is opinion concern- 

ing whether or not the work 
^^"''~'^~"~"^""^^^"'^^^^^^^~ should be published; the ex- 
pert might suggest certain emendations. In the latter case, the expert 
should specify whether publication should depend on the incorpora- 
tion of such emendations in the work (no. 340. 24). The opinion is given 
to the superior who should not reveal the examiner's name unless the 
examiner has so agreed to such release (no. 341-25). Finally, if for some 
reason, such as the difficulty of the subject matter, the provincial thinks 
consultation with the General is necessary, he should send the work and 
the judgment of the expert(s) to him (no. 342. 26). 

No. 343. 27 establishes specific norms for the publisher of the 
work: the type of publication should correspond with the type of work; 
contracts for publication cannot be made until permission to publish 
has been obtained or the competent provincial has dispensed from this 
requirement; the provincial approves contracts before they are signed. 
Information about and copies of the works are sent to the General and 
provincial following the norms found in Practica QuaedamP"^ 

If a Jesuit were to publish something or hold a press conference 
without first obtaining permission from the competent authority, the 



^^See footnote 46. 

^"^See Part Three: Annual Documents and Other Information, Section 1: 
Annual Documents, VIII. Publications, Practica Quaedam nos. 219-21, 58-59. 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 25 



superior who should have been asked "should discuss the matter with 
him and make appropriate decisions" (no. 345. 29.1°). Finally if a Jesuit 
were to publish something "contrary to our way of helping the neigh- 
bor and serving the Church," the provincial first discusses the matter 
with the individual, and then confers with his consultors and other ex- 
perts, if necessary. The provincial should then take "effective means to 
safeguard the spiritual good of others and the interests of the Church 
and the Society." To achieve this end, the provincial might require a 
clarification, a public retraction, or other fitting actions. 

IV. Norms and Praxis 

The law — ^both of the Society and of the Church as a whole — in- 
tends to foster the proclamation of the good news of Jesus Christ 
and consequently to encourage the various ministries through 
which such proclamation is achieved. As we have seen through the 
analysis of various documents, the apostolate of the Society (and that 
of publication in particular) must have as its goal such characteristics 
as "useful for the common good" and "apt to edify" (footnote 19); "the 
good of the neighbor and the Church's mission in today's world" (p. 
11); "the spiritual good of individuals and the progress of the Church" 
(p. 15); and each Jesuit's "personal responsibility ... to keep constantly 
in mind his apostolic ecclesial mission for the spiritual good of others 
and his belonging to the body of the Society" (p. 15). This intentionality, 
however described, must form the focus of every Jesuit engaged in any 
of the myriad of works through which the Society fulfills its mission. 

In such fulfillment of the Society's mission, law — and the Society — 
presumes^^ adult human responsibility, discerning judgment, and aware- 
ness of the broader context, including responsibility for consequences 
that may or do arise from such individual activities and ministries. 

The Code of Canon Law contains a list of obligations and rights (cc. 
208-23) and, more specifically, obligations and rights of the lay Chris- 
tian faithful (cc. 224-31). But, unlike civil societies, where the fulfill- 
ment of obligations and the exercise of rights often place the individual 



^^ Canon 1584 of the cic states: "A presumption is a probable conjecture 
about an uncertain matter; a presumption of law is one which the law itself es- 
tablishes." A presumption, however, can and must be overturned by evidence 
to the contrary. 



26 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, S.J. 



in opposition over and against the larger group, the Church provides a 
specific context for such exercise and fulfillment: the obligation to main- 
tain communion with one another (c. 209) and a recognition that the 
common good of the Church as a whole must take priority over the in- 
dividual exercise of rights and the fulfillment of obligations. 

Thus for a Jesuit, the "common good" both of the Church and 
of the Society of Jesus must exercise a strong influence on his ministry. 
In the ideal situation, Jesuit superiors would find little need to compel 
under the vow of obedience in as much as an individual Jesuit freely 
presents himself for service in the Church and trusts his superiors with 
the discernment skills necessary to make decisions concerning assign- 
ments, ministry, residence, etc. 

More particularly, superiors given the responsibility to ensure 
compliance with the norms of the Society concerning publications 
should and can presume that they are working with adults who are re- 
sponsible and capable of mature decisions. For example, when a Jesuit 
has completed the arduous process of obtaining a doctoral degree and 
has been missioned by his superior (first to doctoral studies and then to 
a specific ministry involving the exercise of his learning),^^ then his su- 
perior may presume that the Jesuit knows the Society's law about pub- 
lishing and should effectively implement that law in his publications. 

A university teaching position requires publishing articles and 
books (the "publish or perish syndrome" prevalent in academic circles) 
in order to obtain tenure and to maintain one's position in the education- 
al institution and field. The provincial has already made a decision con- 
cerning the individual by approving him for doctoral studies and the in- 
dividual has proven himself by successfully writing and defending his 
dissertation. Provided nothing has arisen to cause the provincial concern, 
the provincial trusts the individual Jesuit to exercise responsibly his ob- 
ligation of publishing. This particularly pertains to the situation where 
the individual teaches a discipline not connected with religious or moral 
questions (see no. 334. 18). In the areas of religion and morality, there is no 
requirement that the examiner be a member of the Society (though he or 
she should be familiar with the Society's reasons and goal of publishing). 
Thus, the individual Jesuit and his provincial may consider the editor of 
a Catholic periodical — the one who decides whether or not to publish a 
submitted article — to be a competent expert. 



^ Ultimately, even if a Jesuit finds and secures such employment on his 
own, his ability to do so arises because he has been missioned by his superiors. 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 27 

Clearly, Jesuits have manifested ability in a specific field by ob- 
taining an advanced degree. For Jesuits who are missioned to other 
apostolates, their expertise in a given field is manifested in a variety 
of ways. For example, a gifted retreat and spiritual director demon- 
strates his expertise in this ministry by offering his views and opinions 
which in turn find acceptance among other experts in that field. In other 
cases, Jesuits offer articles and 

material for publication to Je- ^^^— ^^^^^— — ^-^— ^— ^ 
suit periodicals. In the usual Familiarity with these norms is 

scenario, the Jesuit editor has necessary, not simply because they 
been given the authority to al- are laws hut rather to gain an 

low publication of such ma- understanding of the underlying 

terials by being missioned to rationale and teleology for the 

that position. ministry of publishing, to situate 

It is most important ^^^^ ministry within the broader 

that the provincial know his context of the Society of Jesus and 
men and their competence for ^^^ Church, within the context 

a specific ministry and their of service of neighbor 

competence and balance in and of the Church's mission. 

publications, in the broad- — .^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^— ^^ 
est sense of the term. This, 

from one perspective, highlights the importance of the manifestation 
of conscience in the life of the Society and of its individual members. 

Nonetheless, problems can and do arise; at times, due to the Jesuit's 
lack of discernment but at other times not from any lack of responsibil- 
ity, but due to particular circumstances of time and place. For example, a 
Jesuit because of his expertise is invited to contribute an article on a par- 
ticularly vexing subject and one that he knows may give rise to contro- 
versy. It would be relatively easy first to dialogue with his provincial on 
the matter; and if permission were given to publish, then the provincial 
would be better prepared to deal with any effects that may arise. 

In all such dealings charity is essential — ^both within the Society 
and without. In other words, this exercise of charity includes the spe- 
cific admonition not to cause offense — to others outside the Society but 
also, just as importantly, to one's own brothers in the Society. The aim of 
publishing is to promote learning, foster dialogue and understanding, 
and, ultimately, no matter the specific subject, to proclaim the gospel of 
Jesus Christ. 



28 ^ Robert J. Kaslyn, SJ. 

V. Concluding Remarks 

The Norms proper to the Society of Jesus refer twice to one of the 
general principles, namely, no. 320. 4, the four characteristics of 
Jesuit publishing. The emphasis on these characteristics may 
serve as a principle of interpretation for the norms themselves as well 
as their application by superiors, examiners, and all menibers of the So- 
ciety and thus deserves to be quoted in full: 

1. The subject matter treated should be useful, according to the ap- 
ostolic goal and mission proper to the Society. 

2. The work to be published should be better than average in its cate- 
gory and thus come up to the legitimate expectations of those for whom 
it is intended. 

3. The subject matter should agree with the doctrine of faith and 
morals as proposed by the magisterium of the Church, with due regard 
for legitimate freedom of research, when there is a question of writings 
which by their nature or by reason of the journal in which they are to be 
published are destined only for experts in the matter. 

4. The writings should contain nothing that could justifiably give of- 
fense to other persons, groups, nations, or institutions. 

These characteristics demonstrate that the norms on publishing — 
as with other norms in our proper law or in universal law — are at the 
service of the Society and of the Church and her mission.^^ Their aim 
is to facilitate the mission of the Society, and thus they are rooted in the 
Society's fundamental texts as well as its way of proceeding and its his- 
tory, including the various missions entrusted to her throughout her 
history. And, to a certain extent, the norms reflect common sense, es- 
pecially the fourth: publications must serve the greater good and not 
merely the individual author or the author's particular agenda.^^ 

The Provincials of the United States have expressed their perspective: 



^^The final canon of the CIC (c. 1752) provides a foundational principle: 
"the salvation of souls . . . must always be the supreme law in the Church" [salus 
animarum . . . in Ecclesia suprema semper lex esse debet]. 

^ In a similar way, the exercise of obligations and rights by the Christian 
faithful is conditioned by the obligation to remain in communio with the whole 
Church {cic, c. 209) and by the needs of the common good (C7C, c. 223). Rights 
and obligations exist within the community of faith and are at its service. 



The Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 29 



The Provincials recognize that one cannot legislate for every instance of 
potential misuse. The Society must rely and call upon the goodwill and 
good judgment of each Jesuit regarding the appropriateness of public 
commentary. Therefore, the goal is to provide a framework for transpar- 
ency, while not discouraging communication. [JCProtocol] 

In other words, a proper balance needs to be maintained, entailing both 
personal responsibility and a recognition of the responsibilities inherent 
in communio. 

In the practical dimension, familiarity w^ith these norms is neces- 
sary, not simply because they are law^s but rather to gain an understand- 
ing of the underlying rationale and teleology for the ministry of pub- 
lishing, to situate this ministry within the broader context of the Society 
of Jesus and the Church, within the context of service of neighbor and of 
the Church's mission. Obtaining a positive assessment by an examiner 
and securing permission to publish have purpose and value inasmuch 
as they assist the individual Jesuit in fulfilling his ministry as a Jesuit. 

As for the goal of the norms, I would return to Antonio de Al- 
dama's quotation from the Constitutions, no. 154: they are intended ''to 
help and dispose souls to gain their ultimate end from the hand of God 
our creator and Lord.'' The practice of mere legalism — following the 
law simply because it is the law — often does injustice to the underlying 
purpose or intention of a particular norm. Jesuits involved in publish- 
ing — understood in its broadest sense — are engaged primarily and fun- 
damentally in a ministry and are at the service of Jesus Christ, as well as 
the Society itself and the Church. These norms should therefore serve as 
one means to make such ministry better and more fruitful. At times, a 
Jesuit engaged in a specific ministry — publishing, teaching, chaplaincy, 
administration — needs to be reminded of the broader perspective of the 
Society's life and mission; the Jesuit author, more specifically, needs to 
be made aware of other issues as well as of implications from a particu- 
lar work he has produced. That broader perspective echoes throughout 
the foundational documents of the Society including the "Principle and 
Foundation." Constitutions, no. 3 expresses that perspective in the fol- 
lowing way: 

The end of this Society is to devote itself with God's grace not only to the 
salvation and perfection of the members' own souls but also with that 
same grace to labor strenuously in giving aid toward the salvation and 
perfection of the souls of their neighbors. 

Such service must characterize all ministries of the Society. 



Appendix I 

Select Passages from 

The Manual for Juridical Practice of the Society of Jesus 

Books and other writings and creative works intended 
for publication in any way 

Art, L Norms taken from the common law 

308. Books of the Sacred Scriptures cannot be published unless they have been 
approved either by the Apostolic See or by the conference of bishops; for their 
vernacular translations to be published it is required that they likewise be ap- 
proved by the same authority and also annotated with necessary and sufficient 
explanations.^ 

309. It is for the Apostolic See to publish the liturgical books; it pertains to the 
conference of bishops to publish translations of the liturgical books with the 
prior review of the Holy See. For the reprinting in whole or in part of liturgi- 
cal books as well as their vernacular translation, the Ordinary of the place in 
which they are published must attest that they correspond with the approved 
edition. 

310. Prayer books for the public or private use of the faithful may not be pub- 
lished without the permission of the local ordinary. 

311. For their publication, catechisms and other writings dealing with catechet- 
ical formation or their translations need the approval of the local Ordinary or of 
the Conference of Bishops with the prior approval of the Apostolic See. 

312. §1. Books which treat questions of sacred scripture, theology, canon 
law, church history or which deal with religious or moral disciplines cannot be 
employed as the textbooks on which instruction is based in elementary, middle 
or higher schools unless they were published with the approval of the compe- 
tent ecclesiastical authority or subsequently approved by it. 

§2. It is recommended that books which deal with the matters men- 
tioned in §1 be submitted to the judgment of the local ordinary; the same is true 
for writings in which something is found to be of special concern to religion or 
to good moral behavior. 



IThis English translation is from Manual for Juridical Practice of the Society of Je- 
sus (Rome: Curia of the Superior General of the Society of Jesus, 1997), 167-77. As Hans 
Zweif eUiofer, Society of Jesus, then Secretary of the Society, explains in his introduction, 
the Manual does not substitute for the Constitutions and Complementary Norms, but rath- 
er forms a practical and complementary instrument to them [vi]. 

31 



32 ^ Robert J. Caslyn, SJ. 



§3. The approval or permission to publish some work applies to its 
original text, but not to new editions or translations of it. 

313. Books and other writings which treat of questions of religion or morals 
cannot be exhibited, sold, or distributed in churches or oratories unless they 
were published with the permission of the competent ecclesiastical authority 
or they were subsequently approved by it. 

314. §1. Without a just and reasonable cause religious are not to write 
anything for newspapers, magazines or periodicals which are accustomed to 
attack openly the Catholic religion or good morals; and they are to do so only 
with the permission of the local Ordinary. 

§2. It is the responsibility of the conference of bishops to establish 
norms concerning the requirements for clerics and members of religious insti- 
tutes to take part in radio or television programs which deal with questions 
concerning Catholic teaching or morals. 

315. §1. Unless otherwise established, the local ordinary whose permis- 
sion or approval to publish books is to be sought according to canons 309-313 
is the proper local ordinary of the author or the ordinary of the place in which 
the books are published. 

§2. Moreover, unless otherwise evident, the prescriptions concern- 
ing books are to be applied to any writings whatsoever which are destined for 
public distribution. 

316. In order for members of religious institutes to publish writings dealing 
with questions of religion or morals they also need the permission of their ma- 
jor Superior in accord with the norm of their Constitutions. 

Art II. Norms proper to the Society of Jesus 

General Principles 

317. 1. The ministry of communicating the results of one's own research in 
the sacred sciences and in every branch of human culture, and of publishing 
information for the benefit and development of the neighbor, is to be highly re- 
garded in the Society and to be promoted by appropriate means, for the spiri- 
tual good of individuals and the progress of the Church, as a preeminent way 
of fulfilling the mission proper to the Society. 

318. 2. The most important norm of the Society concerning the publishing 
of books, articles and other works intended for wide circulation by audio-visu- 
al means is to be found especially in the personal responsibility of each Jesuit 
to keep constantly in mind his apostolic ecclesial mission for the spiritual good 
of others and his belonging to the body of the Society. Thus whatever he writes 
or sets forth can have repercussions on other members of the Society. 

319. 3. All Jesuits who intend to offer a work for publication should be 
faithful to the long and venerable tradition of the Society of serving the Church 
by explaining, propagating, and defending the faith. They should be mind- 



Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 33 

ful of their obligations of reverence and fidelity toward the magisterium of the 
Church and in a special way to the Supreme Pontiff and all who share the pas- 
toral office with him. 

320. 4. Whatever Jesuits publish should have the following characteristics: 

1°. The subject matter treated should be useful, according to the 
apostolic goal and mission proper to the Society. 

2°. The work to be published should be better than average in its 
category and thus come up to the legitimate expectations of those for whom it 
is intended. 

3°. The subject matter should agree with the doctrine of faith and 
morals as proposed by the magisterium of the Church, with due regard for le- 
gitimate freedom of research, when there is a question of writings which by 
their nature or by reason of the journal in which they are to be published are 
destined only for experts in the matter. 

4°. The writings should contain nothing that could justifiably 
give offense to other persons, groups, nations or institutions. 

Publications which require the permission of Superiors 

321. 5. Jesuits need the written permission of Superiors to publish, whether 
personally or through others, any writing intended for public distribution. The 
same permission is needed to record words or images on disks, cassettes, film, 
videotapes or any other device by which words or images are reproduced for 
public distribution. 

322. 6. Whether a similar permission is needed for the publication of trans- 
lations made by Jesuits is left to the judgment of the competent Superior, even 
if the original had already received the necessary permission. The same norm 
applies to new editions of the same book, if changes have been introduced. 

323. 6. No prior permission is necessary to duplicate writings prepared in 
carrying out a mission given by Superiors and intended for private use (such as 
class notes for students, bulletins for members of one's association, etc.) But a 
copy of such writings should be given to the Superior of the community or the 
Director of the work, according to the particular case, so that if necessary he can 
provide. 

324. 7. When there is a question of a work which according to the prescrip- 
tions of the common law requires permission of the Holy See or the local Ordi- 
nary, permission of the competent Superior is first to be obtained. 

325. 9. 1°. In occasional appearances or interviews given to the communi- 
cations media, provided they are not intended for future duplication (on cas- 
settes, videotapes, etc.), the general principles given above in nn. 1-4 (317 - 
320) are to be observed, as well as any norms the Conference of Bishops may 
have set down, if questions concerning Christian doctrine and morals are dis- 
cussed. 



34 ^ Robert J. Caslyn, S.J. 



2°. Permission of the Provincial is needed for a Jesuit to take on a 
commitment of regularly collaborating with the communications media. 

326. 10. When a Jesuit undertakes the task, with a view to future publica- 
tion, of composing or translating a major work, he should in good time discuss 
the matter with Superiors. 

The competent authority for granting permission 

327. 11. The General reserves to himself the faculty of granting permission 
to edit commentaries on the Institute of the Society which, in the judgment of 
the Provincial are considered to be major works. 

328. 12. The Provincial is the competent authority to grant permission to 
publish all other books, including collaboration in works composed by a num- 
ber of authors, articles to be printed in non-Jesuit publications and works to be 
reproduced by any other audio-visual means. 

329. 13. Permission, which according to canon 831 §1 (here, n. 314 §1) is to 
be requested from the local Ordinary, to write for newspapers, magazines, and 
other periodicals which as a matter of policy openly attack the Catholic religion 
or sound morals, is to be requested through the Provincial. 

330. 14. With due regard for the prescription in n. 13 (327), the local Superior 
is competent to grant permission to publish articles in newspapers. If, due to the 
difficulty of the subject matter treated or for any other reason, the local Superior 
is doubtful about granting permission, he should consult the Provincial. 

331. 15. 1°. Jesuits who are Presidents of academic institutions or Directors 
of communication media proper to the Society may receive from the Provincial 
to whom the apostolic work is responsible delegated authority to give to Jesuits 
the necessary permission to publish works in the media under their direction. 

2°. These Presidents and Directors are responsible to ecclesiastical 
authority and to Superiors of the Society in matters of faith and morals for 
whatever they publish even if written by lay persons. 

332. 16. The Provincial mentioned in nn. 12 and 13 (329 and 329) is the Pro- 
vincial of the author. If the work is published in another Province, the consent 
of the Provincial of that Province is also needed. 

Prerequisites for permission to publish 

333. 17. Superiors or their delegates (cf. n. 15) as mentioned in nn. 11-12 
(328-329), before they grant permission to publish anything which treats of re- 
ligious or moral or closely related questions, should seek the opinion of at least 
one expert in the matter as an aid in f orn\ing their own judgment. They should 
consult other experts as well, whenever the special difficulty of the subject mat- 
ter requires it or when the opinion of the first expert did not favor publication. 

334. 18. When there is a question of matters not particularly connected with 
religious or moral questions, the Superior can either seek the opinion of an ex- 
pert in the matter or can grant permission to publish the work without exami- 



Jesuit Ministry of Publishing ^ 35 

nation on the basis of the knowledge he has of the competence of the author. 
He can also give him general permission to publish writings on a subject in 
which the man has demonstrated his competence, provided they contain noth- 
ing that come under n. 17 (323). 

335. 19. When special circumstances recommend immediate publication of 
an article in the newspapers, and there is not time to seek the opinion of ex- 
perts, the local Superior with the help of his Consultors if necessary can quickly 
examine the article and grant permission to publish it. In cases that are so ur- 
gent that there is no time to consult the Superior, the article may be published 
in the newspaper, provided always that the general norms in nn. 14 (317-320) 
are observed. 

336. 20. If the experts who examined a work with a view to publication 
judge that it should not be published, the competent Superior cannot grant 
permission to publish it. But if at least one of the appointed experts approves 
the work, the Superior according to his own prudent judgment can grant per- 
mission to publish it, with the stipulation that corrections be made which he 
judges necessary. If the experts approve the work, the Superior still retains the 
authority of either granting or denying permission to publish it. 

337. 21. When the competent Superior for whatever reason denies permis- 
sion to publish, he should inform the author of the reasons for the denial. The 
author retains the right of appeal against the decision of the superior who de- 
nied permission. 

The function of the expert examiner 

338. 22. An expert, entrusted with the task of examining a work, should be 
conscious of his responsibility before the Church and the Society. He should 
carry out his function carefully and wisely, keeping in mind the spiritual good 
of others, the teaching of the Church and the way of proceeding proper to the 
Society. 

339. 23. The expert examiner, putting aside all deference to the person, 
should form his judgment according to the criteria indicated [above] in n. 4 
(320). He should be careful not to restrict unjustly personal freedom of research 
or opinion in matters which can be freely disputed among Catholic authors. In 
forming his judgment he should keep in mind the type of periodical where the 
work will be published as well as the readers for whom it is intended. 

340. 24. If he judges the work suitable for publication, let him state whether 
he thinks any emendations should be made, and carefully note whether he con- 
siders these changes so necessary that without them the work cannot be pub- 
lished or whether they are simply suggestions for improving the work. 

341. 25. The expert examiner [should] give his written judgment to the Su- 
perior; the Superior should in no way reveal his name unless the examiner 
himself has no objection. 



36 ^ Robert J. Caslyn, SJ. 



342. 26. If because of the difficulty of the subject matter or for any other rea- 
son, the Provincial thinks the General should be consulted, he should send the 
work to him with the judgments of the experts. 

What is to be done after permission to publish has been given 

343. 27. 1°. The work should be published in a type of publication which 
best corresponds to its nature. 

2°. No contract [should] be made with publishers or printers until 
the requisite permission to publish the work has been obtained. The Provin- 
cial, however, in special cases can dispense from this prescription. 

3°. Contracts are to be approved by the Provincial before they are 
signed. 

344. 28. Information about works published and copies of them are to be 
sent to the General and to the Provincial according to the norms of Practica 
quaedam. 

345. 29. 1°. If any Jesuit publishes anything or holds a press conference with- 
out the required permission, the Superior who should have been asked for per- 
mission should discuss the matter with him and make appropriate decisions. 

2°. If any Jesuit publishes anything contrary to our way of helping the 
neighbor and serving the Church, the Provincial should always discuss the mat- 
ter with him first. Then, after conferring with his consultors and perhaps with 
other experts, he should take effective means to safeguard the spiritual good of 
others and the interests of the Church and the Society, such as requiring a clarifi- 
cation or even, if necessary, a public retraction or other appropriate action. 



















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Past Issues of Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 

Available for Sale 

(For prices, see inside back cover.) 

1/1 Sheets, Profile of the Contemporary Jesuit (Sept. 1969) 

1/2 Ganss, Authentic Spiritual Exercises: History and Terminology (Nov. 1969) 

2/1 Burke, Institution and Person (Feb. 1970) 

2/2 Futrell, Ignatian Discernment (Apr. 1970) 

2/3 Lonergan, Response of the Jesuit as Priest and Apostle (Sept. 1970) 

3/1 Wright, Grace of Our Founder and the Grace of Our Vocation (Feb. 1971) 

3/2 OTlaherty, Some Reflections on Jesuit Commitment (Apr. 1971) 

3/4 Toner, A Method for Communal Discernment of God's Will (Sept. 1971) 

3/5 Sheets, Toward a Theology of the Religious Life (Nov. 1971) 

4/2 Two Discussions: I. Spiritual Direction, 11. Leadership and Authority (Mar. 1972) 

4/3 Orsy, Some Questions about the Purpose and Scope of the General Congregation 

Qune 1972) 
4/4 Ganss, Wright, O'Malley, O'Donovan, Dulles, On Continuity and Change: A 
Symposium (Oct. 1972) 
5/1-2 O'Flaherty, Renewal: Call and Response Qan.-Mar. 1973) 
5/3 Arrupe, McNaspy, The Place of Art in Jesuit Life (Apr. 1973) 
5/4 Haughey, The Pentecostal Thing and Jesuits (June 1973) 
5/5 Orsy, Toward a Theological Evaluation of Communal Discernment (Oct. 1973) 
6/3 Knight, Joy and Judgment in Religious Obedience (Apr. 1974) 
7/1 Wright, Ganss, Orsy, On Thinking with the Church Today Qan. 1975) 
7/2 Ganss, Christian Life Communities from the Sodalities (Mar. 1975) 
7/3 Connolly, Contemporary Spiritual Direction: Scope and Principles (June 1975) 
7/5 Buckley, The Confirmation of a Promise; Padberg, Continuity and Change in Gen- 
eral Congregation XXXII (Nov 1975) 
8/1 O'Neill, Acatamiento: Ignatian Reverence (Jan. 1976) 
Si I-?) De la Costa, Sheridan, and others. On Becoming Poor: A Symposium on Evan- 
gelical Poverty (Mar.-May 1976) 
8/4 Faricy, Jesuit Community: Community of Prayer (Oct. 1976) 
9/1-2 Becker, Changes in U.S. Jesuit Membership, 1958-75; Others, Reactions and Ex- 
planations (Jan.-Mar. 1977) 
9/4 Connolly, Land, Jesuit Spiritualities and the Struggle for Social Justice (Sept. 

1977). 
9/5 Gill, A Jesuit's Account of Conscience (Nov. 1977) 

10/1 Kaxnmer, "Burn-Out" —Dilemma for the Jesuit Social Activist Qan. 1978) 
10/4 Harvanek, Status of Obedience in the Society of Jesus; Others, Reactions to Con- 
nolly-Land (Sept. 1978) 
11/1 Clancy, Feeling Bad about Feeling Good (Jan. 1979) 
11/2 Maruca, Our Personal Witness as Power to Evangelize Culture (Mar. 1979) 
11/3 Klein, American Jesuits and the Liturgy (May 1979) 
11/5 Con well. The Kamikaze Factor: Choosing Jesuit Ministries (Nov. 1979) 
12/2 Henriot, Appleyard, Klein, Living Together in Mission: A Symposium on Small 

Apostolic Communities (Mar. 1980) 
12/3 Con well. Living and Dying in the Society of Jesus (May 1980) 
13/1 Peter, Alcoholism in Jesuit Life (Jan. 1981) 



13/3 Ganss, Towards Understanding the Jesuit Brothers' Vocation (May 1981) 
13/4 Reites, St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jews (Sept. 1981) 
14/1 O'Malley, The Jesuits, St. Ignatius, and the Counter Reformation Qan. 1982) 
14/2 Dulles, St. Ignatius and Jesuit Theological Tradition (Mar. 1982) 
14/4 Gray, An Experience in Ignatian Government (Sept. 1982) 
14/5 Ivem, The Future of Faith and Justice: Review of Decree Four (Nov. 1982) 
15/1 O'Malley, The Fourth Vow in Its Ignatian Context (Jan. 1983) 
15/2 Sullivan and Faricy, On Making the Spiritual Exercises for Renewal of Jesuit 
Charisms (Mar. 1983) 
15/3-4 Padberg, The Society True to Itself: A Brief History of the 32nd General Congrega- 
tion of the Society of Jesus (May-Sept. 1983) 
15/5-16/1 Tetlow, Jesuits' Mission in Higher Education (Nov. 1983-Jan. 1984) 

16/2 O'Malley, To Travel to Any Part of the World: Jeronimo Nadal and the Jesuit Voca- 
tion (Mar. 1984) 
16/3 O'Hanlon, Integration of Christian Practices: A Western Christian Looks East 

(May 1984) 
16/4 Carlson, "A Faith Lived Out of Doors": Ongoing Formation (Sept. 1984) 
17/1 Spohn, St. Paul on Apostolic Celibacy and the Body of Christ (Jan. 1985) 
17/2 Daley, "In Ten Thousand Places": Christian Universality and the Jesuit Mission 

(Mar. 1985) 
17/3 Tetlow, Dialogue on the Sexual Maturing of Celibates (May 1985) 
17/4 Spohn, Coleman, Clarke, Henriot, Jesuits and Peacemaking (Sept. 1985) 
17/5 Kinerk, Wlien Jesuits Pray: A Perspective on the Prayer of Apostolic Persons (Nov. 

1985) 
18/1 Gelpi, The Converting Jesuit (Jan. 1986). 

18/2 Beirne, Compass and Catalyst: The Ministry of Administration (Mar. 1986) 
18/3 McCormick, Bishops as Teachers and Jesuits as Listeners (May 1986) 
18/5 Tetlow, The Transformation of Jesuit Poverty (Nov. 1986). 
19/1 Staudenmaier, United States Technology and Adult Commitment (Jan. 1987) 
19/2 Appleyard, Languages We Use: Talking about Religious Experience (Mar. 1987) 
19/5 Endean, Who Do You Say Ignatius Is? Jesuit Fundamentalism and Beyond (Nov. 

1987) 
20/1 Brackley, Downward Mobility: Social Implications of St. Ignatius's Two Standards 

Can. 1988) 
20 / 2 Padberg, How We Live Where We Live (Mar. 1988) 

20/3 Hayes, Padberg, Staudenmaier, Symbols, Devotions, and Jesuits (May 1988) 
20/4 McGovern, Jesuit Education and Jesuit Spirituality (Sept. 1988) 
20/5 Barry, Jesuit Formation Today: An Invitation to Dialogue and Involvement (Nov. 

1988) 
21/1 Wilson, Where Do We Belong? United States Jesuits and Their Memberships (Jan. 

1989) 
21/2 Demoustier, Calvez, et al.. The Disturbing Subject: The Option for the Poor 

(Mar. 1989) 
21/3 Soukup, Jesuit Response to the Communication Revolution (May 1989) 
22/1 Carroll, The Spiritual Exercises in Everyday Life (Jan. 1990) 
22/2 Bracken, Jesuit Spirituality from a Process Prospective (March 1990) 
22/3 Shepherd, Fire for a Weekend: An Experience of the Exercises (May 1990) 
22/4 O'SuUivan, Trust Your Feelings, but Use Your Head (Sept. 1990) 
22/5 Coleman, A Company of Critics: Jesuits and the Intellectual Life (Nov. 1990) 
23/1 Houdek, The Road Too Often Traveled (Jan. 1991) 
23/3 Begheyn and Bogart, A Bibliography on St. Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises (May 



1991) 

23/4 Shelton, Reflections on the Mental Health of Jesuits (Sept. 1991) 

23/5 Toolan, "Nature Is a Heraclitean Fire" (Nov. 1991) 

24/1 Houdek, Jesuit Prayer and Jesuit Ministry: Context and Possibilities (Jan. 1992) 

24/2 Smolich, Testing the Water: Jesuits Accompanying the Poor (March 1992) 

24/3 Hassel, Jesus Christ Changing Yesterday, Today, and Forever (May 1992) 

24/4 Shelton, Toward Healthy Jesuit Community Living (Sept. 1992) 

24/5 Cook, Jesus' Parables and the Faith That Does Justice (Nov. 1992) 

25/3 Padberg, Ignatius, the Popes, and Realistic Reverence (May 1993) 

25/4 Stahel, Toward General Congregation 34 (Sept. 1993) 

25/5 Baldovin, Christian Liturgy: An Annotated Bibliography (Nov. 1993) 

26/2 Murphy, The Many Ways of Justice (March 1994) 

26/3 Staudenmaier, To Fall in Love with the World (May 1994) 

26 / 5 Landy, Myths That Shape Us (Nov 1994) 

27/1 Daley, "To Be More like Christ" (Jan. 1995) 

27/2 Schmidt, Portraits and Landscapes (March 1995) 

27/3 Stockhausen, I'd Love to, but I Don't Have the Time (May 1995) 

27/4 Anderson, Jesuits in Jail, Ignatius to the Present (Sept. 1995) 

27/5 Shelton, Friendship in Jesuit Life (Nov. 1995) 

28/1 Begheyn, Bibliography on the History of the Jesuits (Jan. 1996) 

28/3 Qooney, In Ten Thousand Places, in Every Blade of Grass (May 1996) 

28/4 Starkloff, "As Different As Night and Day" (Sept. 1996) 

28/5 Beckett, Listening to Our History (Nov. 1996) 

29/1 Hamm, Preaching Biblical Justice (Jan. 1997) 

29/2 Padberg, The Three Forgotten Founders (March 1997) 

29/3 Byrne, Jesuits and Parish Ministry (May 1997) 

29/4 Keenan, Are Inf ormationes Ethical? (Sept. 1997) 

29 / 5 Ferlita, The Road to Bethlehem - Is It Level or Winding ? (Nov 1997) 

30/1 Shore, The "Vita Christi" ofLudolph of Saxony and Its Influence on the "Spiritual 

Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola" (Jan. 1998) 

30/2 Starkloff, "I'm No Theologian, but . . . (or So . . .)?" (March 1998) 

30/3 Torrens, The Word That Clamors (May 1998) 

30/4 Petrik, "Being Sent" (Sept. 1998) 

30/5 Jackson, "One and the Same Vocation" (Nov. 1998) 

31/1 Clifford, Scripture and the Exercises (Jan. 1999) 

31/2 Toohig, Physics Research, a Search for God (March 1999) 

31/3 Fagin, Fidelity in the Church — Then and Now (May 1999) 

31/4 Schineller, Pilgrim Journey of Ignatius (Sept. 1999) 

31/5 Fullam, Juana, S.J.: Status of Women in the Society (Nov. 1999) 

32/1 Langan, The Good of Obedience in a Culture of Autonomy Qan. 2000) 

32/2 Blake, Listen with Your Eyes (March 2000) 

32/3 Shelton, When a Jesuit Counsels Others (May 2000) 

32/4 Barry, Past, Present, and Future (Sept. 2000) 

32/5 Starkloff, Pilgrimage Re-envisioned (Nov. 2000) 

33/1 Kolvenbach et al.. Faith, Justice, and American Jesuit Higher Education Qan. 

2001) 

33/2 Keenan, Unexpected Consequences: Persons's Christian Directory (March 2001) 

33/3 Arrupe, Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism (May 2001) 

33/4 Veale, Saint Ignatius Asks, "Are You Sure You Know Who I Am?" (Sept. 2001) 

33/5 Barry and Keenan, How Multicultural Are We? (Nov. 2001) 

34/1 Blake, "City of the Living God" (Jan. 2002) 

34/2 Clooney, A Charism for Dialog (March 2002) 



34/3 Rehg, Christian Mindfulness (May 2002) 

34/4 Brackley, Expanding the Shrunken Soul (Sept. 2002) 

34/5 Bireley, The Jesuits and Politics in Time of War (Nov. 2002) 

35/1 Barry, Jesuit Spirituality for the Whole of Life (Jan. 2003) 

35/2 Madden /Janssens, The Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy (March 2003) 

35/4 Modras, A Jesuit in the Crucible (Sept. 2003) 

35/5 Lucas, Virtual Vessels, Mystical Signs (Nov. 2003) 

36/1 Rausch, Christian Life Communities for Jesuit University Students? (Spring 

2004) 

36/2 Bernauer, The Holocaust and the Search for Forgiveness (Summer 2004) 

36/3 Nantais, "Whatever! " Is Not Ignatian Indifference (Fall 2004) 

36/4 Lukacs, The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions (Winter 2004) 

37/1 Smolarski, Jesuits on the Moon (Spring 2005) 

37/2 McDonough, Clenched Fist or Open Hands? (Summer 2005) 

37/3 Torrens, Tuskegee Years (Fall 2005) 

37/4 O'Brien, Consolation in Action (Winter 2005) 

38/1 Schineller, In Their Own Words (Spring 2006) 

38/2 Jackson, "Something that happened to me at Manresa" (Summer 2006) 

38/3 Reiser, Locating the Grace of the Fourth Week (Fall 2006) 

38/4 O'Malley, Five Missions of the Jesuit Charism (Winter 2006) 

39/1 McKevitt, Italian Jesuits in Maryland (Spring 2007) 

39/2 Kelly, Loved into Freedom and Service (Summer 2007 

39/3 Kennedy, Music and the Jesuit Mission (Autumn 2007) 

39/4 Creed, Jesuits and the Homeless (Winter 2007) 

40/1 Giard, The Jesuit College (Spring 2008) 

40/2 Au, Ignatian Service (Summer 2008) 

40/3 Kaslyn, Jesuit Ministry of Publishing (Autumn 2008) 



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